Unit 16 Understand Specific Needs Assignment
This Understand Specific Needs Assignment describes about health and social care concepts and services.
Different Concepts related to Health –
Health – This is wellbeing or natural state of a human being or the tuned up state of an individual’s body. It is also considered as functional or metabolic efficiency of an individual human being. According to Ayurveda from India, it is the harmonious state between mind, body, soul and external environment.
The term “healthcare” is a combination of two words, “health” and “care”. The term “health” refers to the physical and mental condition of an individual. In the same context, the term “care” defines the processes in which the physical and mental condition of an individual is constantly monitored and analysed to ensure the individual to be the best condition. The combination of both of these terms generates the term “healthcare” which basically defines all the processes and procedures used by the professionals to take care of the health of the individuals. Each and every country in the world has a number of dedicated healthcare service providers who are responsible for providing a wide range and types of healthcare services to the citizens of that country. Generally the healthcare service providers are also concerned about the health and social care services also. The social care services provided to an individual basically consists of a number of activities which ensures the fulfilment of all the basic social needs of the individual. These basic social needs include food, shelter, rights, clothes etc. There are a large number of service providers in the world who provide both healthcare and social services in a combined way (Helman, 1990).
The term “illness” generally defines a state of an individual in which he or she is not feeling the same as per usual conditions. The condition of illness defines the deteriorated physical and mental condition of the individual which causes him or her to feel bad, weak and perform less.
The term “symptoms” defines the hints or the conditions which allows others to understand and observe the illness of an individual. These are small actions or events which confirms the state of illness of an individual. There are a wide range of illnesses in the world and some of them have similar set of symptoms. Some of the other symptoms are not so common and defines the presence of specific illnesses.
The term “disability” defines an individual’s inability to perform certain basic and regular actions. This term defines the condition of an individual in which he or she is unable to perform some of the basic actions or events. This is generally caused by any limb not working properly (Kleinmann, 1988).
Behaviour – Behaviour is said to be a set of activities, actions or mannerisms performed by any individual human being in any context or settings. Behavioural activities are generally biased actions based on social, cultural, ethical, emotional, values and personal traits factors. They generally fall in two major categories of acceptable and non-acceptable based on these factors only, which give birth to any specific behaviour.
The services of healthcare includes a number of activities such as understanding the emotions of the patients, understanding the needs of the patients, preventing diseases, increasing awareness regarding a number of deadly diseases etc. All of these activities increases the effectiveness of the healthcare activities and services, which in turn leads to the increase in the physical and mental condition of the patients (WHO, 2007).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – In Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from childhood disability of learning, which was the resultant of his genetic disorder Epilepsy (illness). Mr. Luke’s overall health was normal and pretty tuned up. Though faced with difficulties to communicate and learn, it was pretty time taking for him to get socially acclimatize and make acquaintances. Assisted with series of health service carers, Mr. Dobson was doing fine with new learning abilities like sign languages and making friends etc. His behavioural environment was just quite perfect, with him being content and happy and being totally cared for (WHO, 2004).
The patients receiving health and social care services have a certain types of needs which are generally generated through the conditions of illness. This in turn requires the health and social care professionals to understand these specific needs so that they can satisfy these needs of the patients. The fulfilment of these specific needs of the patients allows the health and social care professionals to understand, observe and analyse the condition of the patients in a better way. This leads to the increase in the effectiveness of the patients. All the health and social care services maintain the patients at the centre or core of the service which allows the professionals to focus on them (Pennebaker, 1981).
Perceptions are the general preview or mind-set anticipation of an individual or a group of human beings against or for an event, person, status or activity/process/procedure.
Perceptions about an individual’s health and illness have been since time immemorial being dependant on the social, cultural, emotional and value based in almost all the geographies of the world.
To understand it in little detail, we can break down the general perception build-up and changeover of the society at large across the globe in time-zones and dependant on factors mentioned above.
Early History – Disability or a certain type of inherent illness were seen in different connotations like being possessed by evil spirits to being punished by gods to being bearing the brunt of one’s own fate to being not healthy and socially outcasts. Disable or people with specific needs were not treated equally and were subjected to many discriminations across countries. Some of the economies were comparatively more sensitive to identify their specific needs and include them in mainstream society.
Middle-ages to pre-modernity – This was the time of scientific and technological advancements and hence medical science being upgraded and updated at a magnificent pace. Causes, reasons and cures of many disabilities and illness were discovered and propagated. Conditions improved comparatively and hence the perceptions and sensitivity towards specific needs and patients with disability.
Modernity and 21st century – This is the age of inclusion and advancement of cutting edge technology and knowledge enhancement. Almost all known human ailments, disabilities and illnesses are discovered with their root causes and their cures. Social, cultural and legislative norms in almost all the countries have evolved and matured their overall models for inclusion of persons with specific needs to mainstream society. Sensitivity and perception has changed and behavioural change pattern has emerged (Wright, 1960).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – Patients with genetically sworn diseases or disabilities like epilepsy have been accepted as persons with specific needs, their learning and other handicaps are being realized and accepted. To address the issues, the legislation and statutory framework of governments in various economies have setup provisions for facilities like service homes, education and learning facilities for patients with specific needs etc. similarly like the one where Mr. Luke Dobson was lodged with utmost care of qualified staff (NVQ level 3 qualified) since last 10 years (Wright, 1973).
Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –
The cultural background of an individual generally defines the key behavioural traits of the individual. The cultural background of an individual defines the beliefs, perceptions and habits of the individual. All of these factors of an individual character also affects the health and social care services.Patients like Mr. Luke Dobson with learning disabilities which are part of their epilepsy syndrome are treated with extra care. Health Service Care homes are quite prevalent in many countries for talking care of these patients. They are no longer considered to be any taboo or stigmatized, rather the root cause problem is addressed and alternative course of measures are taken.
There are a number of social factors which are also responsible in the changes in the health and social care services. Some of these social factors are the occupation, economical status, social status, religion, race, background etc.In Luke Dobson’s case, he had been admitted in Service Home and was taken care by a series of well qualified care takers. These kinds of arrangements have been socially accepted norms where patients can no longer be taken care at their respective homes and are shifted and taken care at specialized living areas.
There are a number of legislations and frameworks established in each of the countries to focus on the health and social condition of all the people living in the country. All of these legislations and frameworks have a common objective of strengthening the health and social status of the citizens of the country. The legislations and frameworks are responsible for managing the activities of the health and social care service providers working in the country, setting the procedures to raise concerns and complaints regarding the health and social care services, providing all the stakeholders along with the patients with minimum rights etc.
Some example of models and frameworks for regularizing specific need cares are –