Introduction of Scientific Management Assignment Help
Organization is defined as a unit where group of people are working together to pursue a collective goal. To achieve this goal, these people needs to managed and have to assigned specific roles and responsibility. Since the industrialization when people started working together in a factory there have been many management methods to improve the productivity, economic efficiency of the company. These management methods are termed as scientific management approach for growth and efficiency. In this essay we try to analyze the various aspects of scientific management in manufacturing as well as the service department, try to evaluate their relevance in the current market scenario and understand the roles of manager. We have come from industrial age to globalization, where we are more dependent on knowledge and skills of the individual. That is the actual assets of the company rather than land and capital. Hence the traditional methods of management needs some bit of modification to manage the new age employees. The new methods of management demands employee should be treated fairly and given encouragement to align their individual goals to the organizational goals. This would ensure amicable working environment which in turn would result in higher productivity and innovation for the company.
Organization and Human Subordination
Jaffee (2001), in his paper ‘The rise of the Factory system’, describes that beginning of the industrial organization can be linked to formal subordination of labor. As we have discussed earlier about the definition of the organization, similarly formation of the factory required the real subordination of labor where all the people are working under the one roof. Since the arrival of the assembly line, new methods of scientific management have surfaced to improve the productivity of the factory. Jaffee (2001) mentions about creating the human factor of production which plays an important role in the development of the company. There are two ways to look at it. We can analyze from the perspective of the employee or the labor and we can analyze from the perspective of the employer. Montgomery (1979) have analyzed the perspective from both the side. He argues that “one side, craftsmen develop collective practice for regulation of trade through openly as well as union work rules and covertly through group enforced code of ethical behavior on job. While from the other side employers developed more systematic control over production of the firm.”
The reason for emphasizing the importance of human factor at production is it cannot be controlled or managed like other assets such machines and money. The human intervention to engage, encourage, involve and motivate plays a much larger role rather than just focusing on improvement of economic output. Since the emerging factory system was difficult for the people to accept and was significantly different from their earlier mode of working that provided enough freedom and autonomy to the workers. If try to look this problem in a broader sense, the problems in the current market scenario are still the same. Innovation and technological changes are happening at the breakneck speed sue to globalization and the recent practices of one country are reaching the other at blink of a second but it is not humanly possible to change the skills of the employees at such speed and hence we always face the resistance from the labors (knowledge workers as well the skilled workers). Hence every change management goes through the resistance in every small or big organization. Hence Scientific management theory was developed by industrial engineer Frederick Taylor to deal systematically with the labor problems faced in the factory that hampered that productivity and efficiency.
Scientific Management of Scientific Management Assignment Help
Scientific management tries to focus on two problems, firstly on the possession and control of the skill set by the labor for method of production and secondly on capacity to exercise on discretion on its exertion of work efforts. Since the owners dependent on the craft knowledge of worker, owner needed to gain that knowledge to shift the power. Hence to shift the knowledge from the individual craftsman it was devised to make one standard method that would be used by all. Hence it was an application of science that was used to break every work into a task and apply the best possible way. Hence principal of science were applied to principal of social organization of production. The underlining rule for developing this management technique is to reduce the variable and unpredictable environment that persists in factors of production. The four step process of scientific management is
- Analysis of every element in the labor process including the rules of motion of each worker: As per science, every step including its motion can be standardized to make the perfection of working condition.
- Scientific selection, training and development of workers: Once the steps are standardized then workers needs to be selected and trained on the necessary details.
- Cooperation of managers and workers: Managers and workers need to cooperate to ensure that all the work is done as per the scientific guideline.
- Equal division of work and responsibility between managers and workers: With equal division of labor, both the parties feel fewer burdens and more works gets done.
Taylor deduced that all the human motions are analogous to machine and if every action is divided and standardized then dependency on human factor can be reduced quite considerably. The reason being he assumed that human beings are basically lazy and they need to be motivated, persuaded to exercise initiatives. The disadvantage of the scientific management is that it treats every human action as machine and thinks they are replicable. But the truth is that every individual is different in terms of culture, basic values and principals. And techniques of scientific management completely ignore the values such as commitment, loyalty, innovation brought by the employees. The intellectual talent of the employee cannot be translated into a commodity. These are core human values which can never be divided in scientific steps and are dependent on each individual. Hence scientific management technique succeeds to an extent in the assembly line production and factories where manual labor required is to a great extent but it needs a rethinking in its approach to consider human qualities as well.
Jackson and Carter (2006), in his book Rethinking Organizational behavior, describes the importance individual human being and the meaning it gets from the meaningful work done. It mentions that human beings in are regarded as the assets and should be treated like one. Every labor works for the salary he gets at the end of the month. This is a wage economy and every person is a seller of its work. The goods and services produced in the country keeps the economy moving forward and creates job for future. When person is selling its labor the incentive theory cited in the book makes employer philosophy quite clear.
“To make the rich work harder you pay more and to make the poor work harder you pay less”
Since the industrial age and with the scientific management, Gulick (1937) mentions that the practices have emphasized on making the company process dependent and not the person dependent. The idea is to remove uncertainty and unpredictability associated with it and to ensure that companies last for generations. But with this there was shift in the management thinking and they started treating the employees as the commodity and human aspect of the labor was neglected.
Jackson and Carter (2006) describes that formation of self and assessment of self plays an important role in the development and overall behavior of an individual. We are social animal and things we learn and see in the surrounding are the things we adapt. The learning process is gradual but continuous. When the employee works for an organization, for the win-win relationship he has to ensure that he continuously learning from his surrounding and making the significance for the organization. The significance made to the organization ensures that managers find him relevant for the organization.
Jackson and Carter(2006) also differs on the wage theory that employees are in the organization only for the salary but are for the incentives. It can be in monetary as well as in nonmonetary terms. Nonmonetary incentives can be recognition in the factory, motivation and commitment to work in the competitive environment which sometimes plays much higher role than the salary of an employee. Hence the motivation theory can be described as the desire to gain on whatever incentives are available at work. Hence it differs quite significantly from Taylor that Human beings are lazy and it puts emphasis on motivation that comes from within and is inaccessible to being managed.
Mintzberg(1971)has cited the significance and role of the manager in its day today life. There are various characteristic of the manager such as doing great quantity of work at great speed, working on the current issues, working between his organization and network of contacts. Sarbin (1968) has mentioned about the roles of manager such information role, decision roles, leadership roles, interpersonal roles that a manager plays throughout the day. Drucker (1954) and other management thinkers have described the role of manager as someone who plans, organizes, coordinates and controls. Hence it clearly defines the role of the manager and as the earlier scientific approach it tries to divide and categorize every activity into one of the above. But Kelly (1964) observed and identified that manager does much more activities that cannot be categorized in above four. Gibb (1969) has mentioned regarding that leadership role and the decision making process of the manager that lays the foundation for the planning and organizing. The role of the manager is to identify and allocate the resources as the skills and it requires great knowledge of the planning process to achieve that. Hence now we are analyzing the manager instead of the labors and trying to understand their activity by scientific management which is quite a difficult task. The reason being, human actions and though process are difficult to comprehend and are person dependent. There can be scenario where two managers in will assess a situation with different thought perspective and there is no scientific management technique available that can standardize the thought process. Since the thought process varies, it will also vary the decision taken in those situations. Hence the various roles of the manager such as information roles where individual manager tries to analyze information based on his competence, decision role where he takes decision based on the analysis of information, interpersonal roles where he asses different employees based on their individual skills, leadership roles where he tries to motivate and guide its employees in the moment of crisis are very peculiar to individual and cannot be standardized as per the scientific management techniques.
Conclusion of Scientific Management Assignment Help
Scientific management technique is the process of breaking down every labor activity and is an attempt to solve the problem arising from the over dependence on labor. It tries to address the uncertainty and unpredictability associated with the human factor in production. The idea is to consider every action in the scientific terms and try to make it a person independent and process dependent. In the manufacturing and factory production, scientific management technique has helped a lot and has been instrumental in bringing the productivity and throughput of the organization higher. But the disadvantages associated with it are it tries treating the employees and labors as the commodity and do not differentiate between the labor and machines. There are certain human qualities that cannot be scientifically categorized and are not accessible to being managed. These qualities are loyalty, commitment, and motivation to complete the work in best possible manner. Especially in the service industry where knowledge workers are the actual assets of the organization, employees have to be treated fairly and have to be given enough freedom and autonomy to finish task at hand. Hence management technique has to draw fine line between scientific management and modern management techniques.
- Montgomery, D. 1979,Workers’ Control in America: Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles. New York: Cambridge University Press
- Drucker, P. F.1954, The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York
- Taylor, F. 1911, Principles of Scientific Management, New York, Harper & brothers
- Gibb, C. A. 1969, Leadership, Chapter 31 in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot A. Aronson (editors),The Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 4, Second edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass
- Gulick, L. 1937, Notes on the Theory of Organization, in Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (editors), Papers on the Science of Administration, Columbia University Press, New York, 1937
- Jackson, N.& Carter, P. 2006, Self in Rethinking OrganizationalBehavior: A Post-Structuralist Framework, 2nd ed, FT Prentice Hall.
- Jaffee, D. 2001, The rise of the factory system, Organization Theory: Tension and Change, McGraw Hill, Boston, pp. 42-63,
- Kelly, J. 1964, The Study of Executive Behavior by Activity Samplinig, Human Relations, Vol. 17 (August 1964), pp. 277-287.
- Mintzberg, H. 1971, Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation, Management Science 18(2), pp. 97-110.
- Sarbin, T. R. & Allen, V. L., 1968, Role Theory, in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot A. Aronson (editors), The Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. I, Second edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, pp. 488-56