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2.The oxidation of 3- ethyl- 4-methyl Hexanol forms

3- Ethyl -4- methyl Hexanal which upon further oxidation forms

3- Ethyl-4- methyl Hexanoic acid

2- bromopropane The structure is not clear

1-Ethyl-1-methyl amino butane

N-Butyl Propanamide

Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than alcohols. This is due to the higher number of hydrogen bonds in carboxylic acids compared to the alcohols. The higher number of hydrogen bonds increases the van der Waals forces thereby the high boiling points

The reaction is a hydrolysis reaction. This is because it involves water as one of the reactants. There is breaking of bonds to give a shorter chain in the presence of water

Page 8 Thinking and enquiry

 

The naming of the functional group position

4-propyl-2-pentanoneThe use of prefix tri which means there are three branches of the same group. The correct prefix should be di since there are only two branches of methyl

3, 3-dimethyl Hexane

There are two hydroxyl groups so the IUPAC name should have diol as a suffix

2, 5 Pentadiol

  1. Carboxylic acid

Carboxylic Acid

Page 16

Unit 2 structure and properties

Atoms, electrons, and periodic trends

1.

  1. Plank- He originated the quantum theory
  2. De Broglie- he contributed in describing the nature of electrons. He suggested that all matter was wave properties
  3. Einstein- He invented the mass energy equation
  4. Heisenberg- Uncertainty principle which states that it is impossible to calculate the momentum and the location of electrons
  5. Schrodinger he formulated wave equation matrix mechanics. Physical meaning of wave function.

2.

S orbital- it is spherical in shape and carries only two electrons

P orbital have dumbbell shape and has three subshell that occupy 2 electrons each

D orbital is found in third energy level and higher. Has five orbitals each occupied by two electrons

  1. The energy occupied by the electron is the third energy level and occupies the P orbital spinning upward.
  2. Na has larger atomic radius than Mg. this is due to the increase in protons in Mg thereby increasing the forces of attraction between the positive center and the outermost energy level and hence the decrease in the atomic radius.
  3. K has a larger atomic radius compared to Cl because Cl has higher positive nuclear charge that causes higher force of attraction to the last energy level
  4. Sr has larger atomic radius than Ca due to the increase in the number of energy levels hence the increase in atomic radius
  5. Ga has larger atomic radius than Al due to higher number of energy levels. Ga has 4 energy levels while Al has 3 energy levels.
  6. has a larger atomic radius than F due to reduced force of attraction between the positive nucleus and the last energy levels
  7. Br has larger atomic radius than Cl due the increase in the number of energy levels.
  8. 8 orbitals
  9. 7 orbitals
  10. 2 orbitals
  11. 10 orbitals
  12. C 3d3, 4S2
  13. The distribution of the electrons in the P orbitals could have been one electron in Px and another in Py not two electrons in Px. 1S2 2S2 2Px 2py
  14. The number of electrons shown are less since iron should have 26 electrons and only 8 electrons are shown. 1s2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P6 3d6 4S2
  15. The number of electrons in the diagram are less than the actual number of electrons in bromine which is 35. 1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P6 3d10 4S2 4P5
  16. Magnesium 1S2 2S2 2P
  17. Page 17
  1. Structures*
  2. Polar molecules have higher boiling points than the non-polar molecules due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonds in polar molecules. The high boiling point in the non-polar molecule is due to large size of the molecule that increases the number of van der Waals force hence the higher boiling point.
  3. NH3 –weak Van Der Waals forces
  4. NaI – ionic binds
  5. CH4 – weak Van der Waals forces
  6. Sulphur, Cesium, Oxygen Krypton.

Sulphur is made of puckered ring each containing strong covalent bonds. The breaking of the covalent bonds require high energy hence the high boiling point. The cesium is a metal hence a high melting point. Oxygen is an atom the have weak van der Waals forces while the krypton exist as atoms hence no intermolecular forces.

  1. Crystal refers to the three dimensional arrangement of particles in a solid. Unit cell of crystal is the smallest particle in a crystal arranged in different directions.
  2. The glass crystal are hard and stable while the ionic crystals are brittle. Glass crystals cannot conduct electricity but the ionic crystals conduct electricity in the molten form.
  3. SiO2, K, CH3CH5OH, C3H8.

The silicon dioxide is a giant covalent structure molecule that has strong covalent bonds between silicon and oxygen atoms hence the high melting point. K has metallic bonds between atom and therefore high melting point. CH3CH5OH has higher melting point than C3H8 due to the presence of hydrogen bonds.

Sulfuric acid is a chemical compound manufactured using contact process and has a chemical equation H2SO4. It is classified as a diprotic acid since it has two replaceable hydrogens. It has several industrial uses due to its oxidizing and dehydration properties. Some of the industries that use sulfuric acid are agriculture, oil refining, metal processing, lead acid batteries manufacturers,

Oil refining industry uses sulfuric acid as catalyst in the crude refining process.it is used in the Alkylation process to produce high octane gases.

Its use in the agricultural sectors has tremendous benefits in the manufacture of superphosphates and ammonia sulfate fertilizers. It is also used in the potato harvesting to dry up the leaves and stems before harvesting.

Sulfuric has also been widely used by the lead acid batteries manufacturing companies. The sulfuric acid reacts with lead metal and lead oxide to form the lead (ii) sulfate that is insoluble. Other uses of sulfuric acid include the manufacture of rubber, detergents, pharmaceutical products and chemicals.It is also used in metal processing. It has been widely used to clean me

Open system is a system that allows loss of energy to the external environment while the insulated system minimizes the loss of energy or rather conserves energy

  1. System is the internal space of an apparatus where a chemical reaction to be studied takes place. Surrounding is the systems external environment. Environment in the universe excluding the system
  2. The collision theory state that for a reaction to occur there must be collisions between particles. When the concentration of reacting particle is increased, the number of collisions between particles also increases thereby the high rate of reacPage 21
  1. Hess’ law states that the enthalpy change is a state function that is calculated by the sum of all changes in a reaction regardless the number of steps involved. It states that enthalpy change depends on the mass and the physical state of the reactants. Therefore it is possible to calculate the enthalpy of reaction using mass and physical states of the reactants
  2. The rate determining step is usually the slowest step in the reaction mechanism. For example if a reaction involves three steps where the first step is fast, the second is slow, and the third is fast. The rate determining step would be the second step since it dictates the start of the final step. Therefore we deduce that the determining step dictates the overall rate equation.

Application

Catalysts are chemicals that speed up the rate of reaction without themselves taking part in the reaction. Biological catalysts are considered as proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions in cells.  Biological catalysts are substrate specific with the enzyme shape matching the shape of the substance. There are several factors that affect the rate of activity of the enzymes in a cell. These factors are temperature, pH and the substrate concentration. The enzymes are inactive at low temperature and the rate of the activity increases with increase in temperature up to the optimal temperature beyond which they become denatured. An increase in substrate causes an increase in the enzyme activity. Each enzyme has an optimal ph.Lower or higher pH causes enzyme inactivity.