Humanistic Learning Theories Assignment
Learning theory is defined as the process of how humans house a perpetual change of behavior (Feist & Feist, 2000). The learning theories include: the behaviorism of Skinner, the psychology of personal constructs of Kelly, the cognitive social theory of Mischel and Rotter, and the social cognitive theory of Bandura.
The existentialism and Humanism theories of Rogers, Maslow, and May, embrace a holistic methodology to psychological human and health existence by defining the values , self-actualization, tragedy, meaning, human potential, spirituality, responsibility and personal (Colman, ed., 2010). Merging the understanding of learning and humanist theories shows a wide spectrum of the nature of humans and their individual personalities as it progresses by the response to their external environment, especially in the social structure while tolerating the authoritative affects of a human’s own internal environment.
Role of personality in affecting situational behavior
As depicted in the learning theory, humans will behave to the mutual benefit of their environmental, behavioral, and cognitive conditions. There is personal confidence if an individual achieves the task that influences a person’s capability to do it. According to Bandura this state is called expectation self-efficacy. Bandura believed the strong point of an individual effectiveness is heavily influenced on how an individual would react in any circumstance or situation. With the arrangement of the environment, individual variables for example personal anticipations and previous behavior cause behavior change (Feist & Feist, 2009).
The behaviorist learning theory involves learning in a trial and error manner. With this trial and error learning technique, an individual will attempt several behavioral patterns until he/she finds one that is supporting. The learning theory says that individuals take previously learned things as a way to develop detailed expectations and reward values in related situations (Feist & Feist, 2009). Before behavior can be introduced in a new position, the individual evaluates experiences from the past to conclude what would be the best achievement and choice to deduce a familiar outcome. Within some learning theories, the learner is unreceptive. He/she just responds to environmental motivations. The cognitive learning theory shows how individuals are caring, kind sensible humans and their behaviors are determined by the complexity of the thought processes. Rotter thought that there were certain variables that applied in situational behavior: “behavior potential, expectancy, reinforcement, and the psychological situation” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 544). He also believed that an individual’s situational behavior is fused with their anticipations of strengthening and the effects of their needs and demand in the condition (Feist & Feist, 2009). The cognitive-affective theory of Mischel has the claim that situational and the other behaviors are formed from a kind of sturdy set of characteristics and cognitive processes that blend together within that specific circumstance. Mischel acknowledged that this relative stability, he felt the setting has a strong influence on behavior (Feist & Feist, 2009). Kelly believed individuals selected behaviors from numerous selections from inside a personally created system, all this was made on the choices formed from their expectancy of events.
Humanism is a typical method that says learning is applied as a personal deed to accomplish character potential. Its actions of a human in a conditional behavior that is reliant on the level of motivated potential that an individual is capable of reacting to. In the humanistic theory, learners have emotional and cognitive needs that they react to a condition. When an individual is in a cooperative environment, an individual learns and reacts according in a situation. Giving a humanist viewpoint, replies to a precise situation will be openly related to the present needs and gratification of the individual in the specific circumstance. An individual will answer substantially to fulfilling present needs.
Personality Characteristics within attributed to each theory
Lifespan learning theories tend to belief that personality is an increase of learned preferences that continue. Kelly thought current awareness leads to the development of personality rendering to how an individual expects precise events and so all individual activity is partial by anticipation (Feist & Feist, 2009). Skinner was under the belief that genetics played a substantial role in the development of personality, and genetic modification accounts for unique personalities, but ultimately, environment shapes the personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). Skinner also thought geographical environment, climate, and personal physical strength in relation to animals shaped the overall personality of human-kind, but it’s the social environment that affects and produces the distinctive personality types. (Skinner, 1974, as cited by Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 472).
Bandura understood human nature as “proactive, self-regulating, self-reflective, and self-organizing” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 486). Bandura recognizes that learning enables individuals to learn minus a performing behavior. Rotter thought an individual’s personal history and knowledge characterizes their personalities and their set goals, but stresses the comparisons in individuals however Mischel’s thought was that a person’s individual variances and deviations in behavior more substantial. The theory of Kelly on dichotomy corollary says that personality constructs are double-sided and people choose the one they want to believe will lengthen their future options. Learning theories are critiqued for neither accommodating “individual differences, intelligence, genetic factors, nor the whole realm of personality” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 472).
Humanistic psychology’s belief says that the natural ambition toward personal development, and individuals freely make decisions no matter what the environmental factors are. Free will is important in the development of personality, and the ambition toward self-actualization is a dominant motivation for the creation of the personality (Boeree, 1997). Humanism contends people make choices and actively participate in the creation of their own personalities. Rollo hypothesized three kinds of relationships that form the basis for personality: an individual’s association with oneself, environment, and others. The encouragements of all three relationships produce and contribute to the individual’s ongoing development (Feist & Feist, 2009). Maslow showed us a biological component that provided the basic parameter for the individual; nevertheless, cultural and environmental affects form the ego identity or personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). Rogers acknowledged self-awareness in individuals and this mindfulness allows an individual to make choices and participate in the formation of their individual personalities (Boeree, 1997).
Interpersonal relational aspects associated with the human and learning theories
The humanist perception is that individual’s acquaintance with other individual’s and become involved in healthy relationships, and become productive, though eventually, the individual is alone. Maslow’s belief is that with belongingness, and fulfilling love a primitive need and has to be completed with creating a family, a friendship, a mate and having strong relationships with others Maslow proposed that fulfillment at this stage was vital for other stages of human success (Feist & Feist, 2009). Rogers thought that having a person who cared and gave a positive input for a child nurtured positive self-regard which promoted psychological growth. In order to have a positive esteem from others it is important to have a healthy growth and success toward self-actualization (Boeree, 1997). May’s suggestion was that although people associate with others and form healthy relationships; an individual will eventually choose what they want to become. In looking at the perception of humanism and existentialism it is observed that interpersonal relationships are essential part of the human life. Not having growth and development can cause an unhealthy psychologically growth (Hoffman, 2004). Humanism accentuated interpersonal relationships as a vital component to developed personality.
From a learning point of view, Individuals associate with others because they receive some type of reinforcement or reward for doing so. Originally, humans formed familial groups as protection from enemy clans or tribes or animals’ natural forces. Even when not rewarded or reinforced, people will maintain friendships because of personal associations in a group from which they receive support (Feist & Feist, 2009).
Social constructivism statements says that personality, knowledge, and behavior are created from social arrangement, and individuals shape new ideas and perceptions that are formed on present and past understanding or experience (Feist & Feist, 2009). Bandura thought that individuals learned from their experiences, while much of the person’s learning is resulting from the observing of others, and not having these experiences socially, the growth and development would be inhibited. Mischel was in agreement with Bandura in his belief that an essential component of personality development depends on the reflections of others within one’s environment. Rotter stressed the significance of learning in a social atmosphere and Mischel totally agreed with Rotter, but continued his belief in the prominence of the genetic factors. Kelly believed social effects were more momentous than the biological ones. Kelly also considered individuals are encouraged by one another in creating their personalities.
Learning theories describe individual learning and its consequence on one’s behavior and personality as a reply or response to environment with internal thoughts, while humanistic theory has a belief in a grander propensity for internal individual motivation to a level of self that is determined before hand or species-precise. The diverse viewpoints concerning the effect of different personalities on situational behavior, the individual categorizations of personality and the nature of individuals, the different descriptions of interpersonal relations show and offer a wealth of thought and an understanding of humanity in the environment of psychological belief and presentation.