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Module

Strategic International Business Management        

Level 7

Title of Assignment

Mid-Term Assignment – International Strategy (September 2016)

Programmes undertaking the assignment

 

Weighting within the module

50%

Word limit

3000 words (+ / – 10%); the suggested word limits in the ‘Details of the Assignment’ are based on your using the extra 10% and are merely indicative.

Details of the Assignment

Using Aldi (http://www.aldi.com) as a case company:

1.Identify a potentially attractive target market for the company’s future international expansion strategy. You will be provided with 3 specific countries below to choose from. In order to identify which of these 3 countries represents a potentially attractive target market, you are required to undertake a comparative PESTEL analysis of the macro-environmental factors of the 3 countries.

– Worth 30% of the overall mark; not included in the word count.

This background analysis must be included as an appendix and must be no more than 5 pages in length. 

2. Discussyour rationale for the selection of your chosen market. Your rationale should be justified with a more detailed discussion of your PESTEL analysis of the macro-environmental factors of your chosen market which you have presented in the appendix.

– Worth 15% of the overall mark; 700 words. 

This task must be presented in the first section of the main body of your report. 

3.Critically analyse the opportunities and threats in the firm’s industrial environment in your chosen market. Application of a relevant model or framework such as the 5-Forces analysis is required – a SWOT analysis isnot acceptable.

– Worth 20% of the overall mark; 950 words.

This task must be presented in the second section of the main body of your report.

4.Critically analyse the strengths and weaknesses in the firm’s internal environment which may support or challenge the firm’s expansion into your chosen market. Application of a relevant model or framework such as a VRIO analysis is required – a SWOT analysis is not acceptable.

– Worth 15% of the overall mark; 700 words. 

This task must be presented in the third section of the main body of your report. 

5. Evaluate the various modes of entry available to the firm and recommend – with justification based on the findings of your analyses in Tasks 2, 3 & 4 above – the most suitable mode of entry that willenable this strategic international expansion to be a success for the firm.

– Worth 20% of the overall mark; 950 words. 

This task must be presented in the fourth and final section of the main body of your report. 

You are strongly advised to structure your report in the same order as the assignment tasks set out above.

Remember to include a list of references used at the end of the report (presented Harvard style). 

Countries to choose from:

You are required to undertake a comparative analysis of the macro-environmental factors of the following 3 countries in order to identify a potentially attractive target market for your case company (Task 1):

  • Czech Republic
  • Mexico
  • New Zealand

Learning Outcomes to be assessed

This assessment assesses how well you can do the following (as outlined in the module specification):

  • Critically review the strategy of an organisation in light of international business issues, applying relevant theories and concepts
  • Produce a creative strategic solution to a business problem for an organisation facing diverse challenges, taking into account the firm’s external and internal environments
Key Skills to be practised / assessed

 

This assessment assesses how well you can do the following (as outlined in the module specification):

·         Develop their analytical and problem solving skills.

·         Improve their research skills and data analysis.

·         Work both individually and collaboratively to solve a given problem.

·         Develop effective written and oral communication and presentational skills.

·         Improve their planning, organising and time management skills.

Assessment criteriaYour assessment will be assessed according to these criteria which are reflected in the Assessment Feedback Sheet:

  • Degree of knowledge and understanding of the module subject
  • Ability to develop an argument which is clearly justified and relevant to the particular circumstances of the situation under consideration
  • Ability to develop an argument which is well structured
  • Breadth and depth of reading from the relevant academic literature
  • Ability to critically synthesise and apply relevant theories and concepts from a range of sources
  • Ability to apply the Harvard referencing system in the correct manner
  • Ability to collect and analyse relevant data
  • Ability to identify and evaluate a range of strategic options relevant to the particular circumstances of the situation under consideration
  • Degree of originality in generating relevant and justified solutions to the business problem under consideration
  • Professionalism of presentation
  • Ability to manage time to submit by the deadline
  • Academic good conduct

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FINANCIAL INNOVATION IN EUROPE AND ASIA:A COMPARATIVE STUDY

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

FINANCIAL INNOVATION IN EUROPE AND ASIA:A COMPARATIVE STUDYSecurity of the money related information remains concern toward the financial organizations everywhere throughout the world furthermore in Asia and Europe. Biometrics in banking exhibit a reasonable and imaginative secure technique for managing an account that can possibly ensure the information of the financial institutions and that of the clients.

It is shocking to find that about a large portion of the world’s populace does not have a bank account (Digitalpersona, 2014). Biometrics displays an extraordinary opportunity for banks to tap this opportunity and permit clients to work their ledgers utilizing biometrics. Biometrics engineering gives a more secure and precise innovation for the issue of the bank credit and check cards that aide in the recognizable proof of the clients on the premise of their smart-id cards biometrics information. The biometrics introduces a reasonable and basic engineering for the bank enrolment and keeps the shots of any false action (Digitalpersona, 2014).

Biometrics innovation includes the checking of the fingerprints of the client or representative on the enrolment that is trailed by the framework checking and matching for any copies to avoid misrepresentation. The client or employee filtered fingerprints at the time of getting to information and the framework naturally reports any suspicious action and creates the reports.

1.2 Research Background:

Financial innovation has played an instrumental role in improving the financial services all over the world while bringing convenience to customers in different parts of the world. There are a lot of differences in financial technology that is evident in the regions of Asia and that of the Europe. Therefore, a research study is being conducted so as to analyze the differences in the financial innovations that may exist between the regions of Asia and Europe.

The majorities of consumers in the Asia region are younger and have greater acceptance of new technologies in the field of financial sector that motivates the banking institutions in these regions to launch innovative products and services to cater to the demands of the changing consumer preferences. The majorities of consumers in the European regions are mature and therefore the financial institutions in these countries have a lesser orientation towards innovations. An important factor that also affects the level of innovations in the regions of Europe and Asia is the difference in the economic growth in these regions. The economies of Asia region are still in the emerging stages and have considerable scope for growth and development. The economy of Europe on the other hand, is mature and stable in growth and development.

Security of the financial data remains a concern for the financial institutions in the regions of Asia and Europe. Some of the innovations in the banking industry include biometrics technology, RFID technology for credit cards and mobile payments technology. The innovation selected for the current study is biometric technology.

Biometric technology is a modern technology that allows security to the banking institutions to detect fraud and theft. Biometrics is automated methods to recognize customers on the basis of their biological characteristics such as fingerprints, retina, and iris and voice recognition patterns (Trader, 2014).

1.3 Research Aim and objectives

1.3.1 Research Aim

The main aim of research is to identify and analyze the impact of biometric technology innovations in the security and efficiency in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe

1.3.2 Research Objectives:

  • To assess the importance of biometrics innovations in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe regions.
  • To identify the challenges and opportunities in the implementation of biometrics innovations in banking institutions in Asia and Europe.
  • To recommend future strategies for biometrics innovations in the banking institutions in the regions of Asia and Europe.

1.4 Scope and Significance of the Research

The study will assess the importance of biometrics innovations in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe regions and will identify the challenges and opportunities in the implementation of biometrics innovations in banking institutions in Asia and Europe. As part of the study recommendation will be given as what strategies could be followed by the banks in implementing biometrics innovations.

This study will help in understanding the importance of Biometrics innovations in the security and efficiency in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe. In the context that the technology has evolved and the use of biometric applications have increased. It is important the banks gain a competitive edge by implementing a more secured security system which will help in gaining the confidence of the consumers. Research findings will be useful for banks as well as future researchers who wish to peruse further study on the topic.

1.5 Rationale for the chosen topic

Australian Contract Law Assignment HelpBiometrics has been an answer to security issues spanning across industries like defense etc. Biometrics can be used to solve the security issues faced by the consumers and Banks for protecting the financial data. The solutions can vary from voice biometrics to face recognition and can nearly provide security of accuracy level 99.9% (Cook, 2013). The biometrics is an excellent and secure solution to provide secure financial transactions for the banking institutions. Exploring the area would help in assessing the innovations in the field of biometrics in banking institutions and assess the most efficient, secure convenient and reliable solutions for financial security.  The research subject is of importance in the context that security of transactions and data is the major concern for the bankers and customers. The choice of comparison between Asia and Europe was considered as Asia is the leader in innovations in the financial sector, according to a research study released by Infosys (Ryan, 2013). The banks in Asia region, primarily deal with customers that are comparatively younger in age and embrace new technology in comparison to European banks where the median age of the consumers is around 40 years (Ryan, 2013). The comparison between the Asian and European banks will be done in terms of the practices followed, technological innovation available and the challenges and opportunities in the implementation of biometrics innovations

1.6 Dissertation Structure

There will be seven chapters in this dissertation. The dissertation will start with the “Introduction” chapter. The chapter will focus upon the importance of the research topic and will present the background and the context of the study. Research aims and objectives are also presented in this report. This chapter will be followed by the “Literature Review”. The focus of the chapter will be on past studies which are relevant to the research topic. Some of the previously conducted study will be used as the base for conducting the research. Next chapter will be the “Research Methodology” where the research methods and procedures used in the study will be briefly discussed. The chapter also presents the justification for the research methods selected for the study. The fourth chapter i.e. the “Data Analysis and Presentation” is the next and the important chapter of the dissertation.  The data collected through the primary and secondary research methods is analyzed in this section. The next i.e. the fifth chapter is the “Results and discussions”. The results drawn from the data analysis conducted is present in this section. The second last chapter of the report i.e. the sixth chapter will be the “Conclusions and Recommendations”. The chapter will present a discussion on how the objectives undertaken for research have been met. The conclusions drawn from the study are presented along with few recommendations which will be useful of the readers. The seventh and the last chapter will be the “Personal Development” where the researcher would discuss the contribution of research in developing his personality.

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS

Introduction

Data analysis plays a very important role for achieving the objectives of the research and it further helps in enhancing the overall quality of the dissertation undertaken.  It is that part of a study which involves aspects such as documentation, presentation and analysis of the primary data collected from the 4 sample size to assess the biometrics innovations in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe regions. This data collected will also help in supplementing secondary data that have been looked after by the researcher considering different academic literature and other works carried out by scholars and investigator regarding assess of biometrics innovations in the banking institutions in Asia and Europe regions. Sample selected for the study have been interviewed by researcher using Skype internet video technology and its findings are presented in this chapter. Investigator in total has framed 12 questions to be asked to the respondents considering various aspects with respect to biometric technology to be used in the banking industry. Data was collected on this basis and on the basis of responses proper categorization has been carried out, so as to carry out comprehensive thematic analysis.

Thematic Analysis of Primary Data

Type of Investment Assignment HelpThematic analysis is considered to be one of the qualitative analytic techniques used for extracting and documenting patters concerning specific data collected for the study. It is one of the method that helps researcher in organizing minimal data to be converted into rich information that is further interpreted and deducted from the said data. Thematic analysis is all about dividing collected data into various palpable themes. Theme is designed on the basis of some pertinent component that is reflected in the collected data. These themes entirely depend upon the research questions and represent some degree of a pattern with respect to recorded data. The rationale that can be drawn out of thematic analysis is that it is one of the tool that helps investigator in drawing out comprehensive idea with respect to data collected. However, this cannot be drawn out of any other means of analysis. Even the flexibility of this technique helps in achieving the research objective in a most effective manner and also increases the potential of the research.

Theme Categorization

Before categorization of theme researcher need to carry out through thorough analysis process in this regard. Information collected through interviews from the respondents concerning various aspects with respect to biometric technology to be used in the banking industry. Researcher in this respect has gone through responses many times, in order to develop a strong understanding for developing appropriate themes for the collected data.

Themes and their Analysis

In this part researcher has carried out an analysis process concerning themes that has been drawn out of views and opinions that has been detailed by four respondents who were interviewed for achieving the objectives of the study. Author has also incorporated its interpretation for the purpose of analysis. Themes have been drawn concerning a meaningful structure and it is entirely based upon the perspectives of each respondent.

Theme: 1 Finger print authentication is mostly used biometric technology in financial institution domain.

Respondent 1Finger Print Authentication, Hand geometry, voice verification and retinal scanning
Respondent 2Finger Print Scanning
Respondent 3Facial recognition, Signature verification, Key stoke, Hand scan and Hand vein
Respondent 4Iris, Retina scanning, Figure Print Authentication, Hand Geometry, Hand vein and Voice recognition

When bank managers of different countries were being asked about different biometric technologies they used in banking domain then majority of the respondents turn out their response in favor of using of finger print authentication. The reason of this preference for finger print authentication was found to be as highly accurate and less time consuming by the respondents i.e. bank managers. Following to Type of Investment Assignment Helpfinger print authentication, most of respondents also admitted that hand geometry and retina scanning is also widely used biometric technology in banking sector.  In addition to this, bank managers also accepted that their banks use voice verification and hand vein in order to provide better security customers with regard to monetary transactions. Managers of banks believes that it is important to adopt biometric technology in  the banking domain as it ensures security of money and other assets like gold to the customers and this lead to increase in reputation of the bank in the minds of clientele.

Theme: 2 Biometric technologies is of significant importance for the banking as well as overall financial industry

Respondent 1·         Important for security of funds and protection of confidential data and assets
Respondent 2·         Enhances overall performance of bank

·         It reduces fraudulent activities.

Respondent 3·         Gives more convenience to consumers for doing of secure transactions.

·         Biometric technology saves time of consumer by facilitating quick access or transactions.

Respondent 4·         Highly good in securing money of customers with utmost easy and convenience.

Personal Development Plan Assignment HelpIn the above table, responses of respondents with respect to importance of biometric technology can be seen that they considered biometric technology as the most important for security related aspect. Majority of the respondents admitted that biometric technology facilitates security of transaction i.e. funds and data or confidential information. In addition, bank managers also turn out their response by stating that biometric technology proving to be as significant in reducing or eliminating fraudulent activities. Following this response, bank mangers of Asian countries also answered that biometric technology provides more convenience and ease of use accessibility to the user or consumers. They answered that this technology is helping users in reducing the burden related to carrying of plastic cards and remembering of their passwords for doing of transactions at point of sale. So by seeing this aspect related to biometric technology, the fact can be laid down that biometric technology has significant importance in banking sector.

Theme: 3 Biometric technology enabling banking firms to attain security of transaction and data in a larger extent.

Respondent 1·        In India biometric technology is widely used in banks.

·        Yet more improvement is required.

Respondent 2·        Biometric technology offers wide range of features with respect to providing of security of funds.
Respondent 3·        Gives high security of banking transaction to the users.
Respondent 4·        Biometric technology facilitates greater security in doing of financial transaction by having good scanning processing.

From the interview of bank managers of India and United Kingdom flooring information related to biometric technology was deduced. By evaluating the responses of bank managers of India and UK, it was found that biometric technology has widely been adopted in Indian banks but still much improvement with respect to biometric technology is required in India. Bank managers of Indian banks believed that sound development in biometric technology will provide more security of financial data and transaction to the users as well as banks and this will help banks in increasing their overall performance. Similarly, the bank managers of United Kingdom banks also believed that biometric technologies proving to be highly prolific to the banking institutions as it provides high security in doing of financial transaction. Further, the bank managers also admitted that the scanning process which is used in biometric technology is very effective as it eliminates the fraudulent activities. Further, bank managers also laid down the fact they able to convince customers to use their banking services as their banks are capable enough to provide enough security for financial transaction as well as other assets. So, by seeing this aspect customers are building trust on their banks services.

Theme 4: Retina scan is the most suited biometric technology that can be used within banking industry

Respondent 1Fingerprint recognition
Respondent 2Retina scan and fingerprint
Respondent 3Face recognition scan
Respondent 4Retina scan

From the above response table it can be interpreted that respondents of India consider that fingerprint scan will be one of the technique that can be deployed in the banking domain of the country. On the other hand differences has been seen in the responses of UK respondents as they responded face recognition and retina scan to be most suited biometric technology that can be used within banking industry. From the analysis it can be said that financial innovation that can be initiated in India in banks can be through incorporation of fingerprint scan. However, in UK face recognition and retina scan has laid down greater focus towards acceptability of biometric technology in the banks. Hence, in India the most acceptable biometric technology that can be deployed in banking industry must be the fingerprint scan for the security of the funds of the consumer. Even it is one of the techniques that is cheap and can be easily acceptable in the banking domain of developing country. But UK being one of the developed economies can deploy technology which has got high investment such as retina and face recognition.

Theme: 5 Finger print scanning is the most convenient security system biometric technology

Respondent 1·        Finger Print Recognition
Respondent 2·        Finger Print Scan
Respondent 3·        Finger print and voice recognition.
Respondent 4·        Finger print recognition.

Toxic Material and Hazardous ChemicalIn the above table, it can be seen that majority of the respondents stated that finger print recognition is one of the most convenient and best biometric technology which should be implemented in the banking institution. Bank managers of India see finger print scanning biometric technology as the best because it is cheap in cost which can be executed in large extent. Bank managers of Indian banks also believe that finger print scanning biometric technology is comparative cheaper as compared to other biometric technology. In addition to that bank managers of Indian banks also stated in their responses that finger print recognition is one of its kind of biometric technology systems which requires very less space for storage as compared to other biometric technology system. Similarly, the bank managers of United Kingdom banking institution  also highly believes that finger print scanning is one of the best biometric technology which can be used successfully in banks as it is lower in cost and also facilitates high security to the both service providers as well as the service users. Following to finger print recognition, bank managers of United Kingdom also gives preference to voice recognition biometric technology. They said voice recognition biometric technology is also highly protective for service users or people for doing of financial transaction by using ATMs or point of sales.

Theme 6: Cash withdrawal, fund transfer, cash deposit and mobile internet banking are considered to be the most suitable place where biometric technique can be used within banking industry.

Respondent 1Withdrawing cash, fund transfer, cash deposit or other banking operations
Respondent 2Withdrawal, fund transfer, balance check for customers.

Banks can use it in their mobile and internet banking operations

Respondent 3In point of sale activity and for verifying and processing credit card transactions
Respondent 4Mobile and Internet banking to perform banking transactions such as checking the balance in hand or fund transfer over the telephone

One of the interview question asked by the researcher was concerning the banking channels where biometrics technique can prove to be most suitable. In this respect Indian respondent stated that biometric can prove to be best in the area of withdrawal, fund transfer, balance check for customers and banks can use it in their mobile and internet banking operations. However, UK respondents indicated this aspect to be mobile and Internet banking to perform banking transactions such as checking the Business Promoting Awareness Assignmentbalance in hand or fund transfer over the telephone. The analysis indicates that in India biometric technique can be used in banking industry for providing services to the customers with respect to withdrawing of their cash, transferring of funds and for checking out their balance. But in this respect UK responses that it can be used in banks for carrying out sale activity and for verifying and processing credit card transactions. Even it can be used for carrying out banking transactions and for checking balance in hand considering their bank accounts.

Theme 7: Retina scanning biometric technology should be used in ATMs

Respondent 1·        Retina Scanning
Respondent 2·        Finger Print Scanning
Respondent 3·        Retina Scanning
Respondent 4·        Voice verification.

In the above analysis, it was found that finger print recognition biometric technology should be used in banking system as it is cheaper and also very convenient of using. However, in the interview when respondents i.e. bank managers were being asked that what biometric technology should be used or implemented in ATMs or point of sale then most of respondents turn out their response by taking favor of retina scanning. So, it can be comprehend that majority of the bank managers preferred to use or implement retina scanning in ATM’s in order to provide high security of transaction and credential information to the service users. Following to retina scanning preference, bank managers of Indian banks and United Kingdom banks also gave their choice for finger print scanning and voice recognition. Bank manager said these biometric technologies can be used along with retina scanning or can be used as alternative biometric technology for providing of security of transaction to the consumers. Further, in the analysis, it was found that bank managers give preference to retina scanning because it cannot be replicated or used by other individual.

Theme 8: Hand geometry biometric technologies should be used for authentication in banking applications.

Respondent 1Finger print technique
Respondent 2Hand geometry
Respondent 3Retina scanning technique
Respondent 4Hand geometry technique

Researcher asked one of the questions to the respondents that which biometric technologies should be used for authentication in banking applications. In this respect most of the respondent indicated that hand geometry can be deployed within the banks for carrying out the authentication process in banking applications. In both the countries this aspect is considered to be effective to be placed in the banks. The analysis proves that hand geometry is considered to be most authorized access and it can uniquely identify a user in a system in a proper manner.evn it is one of the technique that is most developed to be used within the banking industry and easy to use.

Theme: 9 Biometric technologies are now mature enough to be used in the banking domain

Respondent 1It should be used in banking sector by seeing the security aspect of financial transactions.
Respondent 2Biometrics technologies are matured enough to be used in banking industry
Respondent 3Must need to use in the fast changing technological environment.
Respondent 4Biometric technologies are still in developing phase. It needs much improvement.

In interview, when respondents were being asked about whether do they believe biometric technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the banking sector then majority of the respondents answered that biometric technology has been developed in a larger level and can be successfully used in banking industry. Bank managers also stated that the security and protection which biometric technologies provide cannot be replaced by any other technologies. From the evaluation, it was also identified that bank managers of United Kingdom also perceives that biometric technologies is still in developing stage which require lot improvement in order to provide sound security of transaction to the customers. So, some respondents think biometric technology should be implemented in banking domain when it is in sound position to deal with security related issues.

Theme: 10 Providing of security and ease of doing of financial transaction are the significant benefits which banking institution can harnessed from biometric technologies


Respondent 1
Security
Respondent 2Ease of doing transactions
Respondent 3Easiness and convenience way of doing financial transactions.
Respondent 4Providing of security to consumer for doing of financial transactions.

By doing analysis of the responses of bank managers of Indian banks and United Kingdom Banks, it is found that the main benefits which banking institution derives from biometric technologies are providing of secure and convenient way of financial transactions to the consumers. In addition to that biometric technologies also help banks customers in eliminating the risk of losing of credential information which are generally seen in doing of financial transaction by using Plastic cash i.e. Debit or Credit Visa or Master Card.

Theme 11: Main barriers or limitations in the implementation of biometric technology in banks.

Respondent 1Acceptability and multifactor authentication
Respondent 2Failed to give accurate results

Fingerprint worn with hard labour work or age

Respondent 3Privacy and confidentiality
Respondent 4Financial literacy and lack of basic education are prohibiting factors

One of the questions asked by the researcher was regarding main barriers or limitations in the implementation of biometric technology in banks. In this respect respondents details varieties of barriers that are associated with biometric technology. Indian responded that major barriers are concerning the its acceptability and multifactor authentication by the consumer, failed to give accurate results and fingerprint worn with hard labour work or age. However, UK responded stated that privacy and confidentiality to be an important barrier in this regard and even financial literacy and lack of basic education are prohibiting factors.

Theme 12: Stringent policies of government are the steps that bank officials should take in order to overcome the limitations

Respondent 1RBI and Bank should create a council to identify and eliminate biometric loopholes
Respondent 2Create an office of biometric at state and district level
Respondent 3Government and appoint technology experts who are proficient in their core area
Respondent 4Proper knowledge with respect to biometric system must be communicated to each individual consumer

From the above responses it has been seen that biometric limitations can only be avoided if governments frames out proper policies in this regard. Proper strategies formulated by the government officials in this regard will help in removing the barriers which come across the implementation of biometric ion the banking industry.

REFERENCES

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APPENDIX

INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE AND TRANSCRIPT 

  1. What are the different biometric technologies which are used in the banking domain?

Respondent 1 (India):”In my opinion there are various banks who have been using biometric techniques such as figure print authentication, hand geometry, voice verification and retinal scanning etc.”

Respondent 2 (India): According to me, most of the banks are using finger print scan biometric techniques because they are highly accurate as well as verification time is very less.

Respondent 1 (UK): As per opinion, banks are concentrating more on different biometric system in banking applications such as facial recognition, signature verification, key stoke, hand scan and hand vein techniques etc.

Respondent 2 (UK): I believed that banking sector has used various types of biometric techniques to increase security and perform transaction efficiency in an appropriate manner. Banks generally use iris, retina scanning, figure print authentication, hand geometry, hand vein and voice recognition techniques.

  1. How would you depict the importance of biometric technologies in banks?

Respondent 1 (India): “As per my view with an updating technology in the present era its importance is increasing in every domain of business. Particularly with respect to banking it has laid down a great importance with respect to security of funds of customer. Banking activities can be performed in a more secured manner by both banks officials and consumers who are undergoing such high tech technological use in their functioning. It protects personal data of customer in a more effective manner.”

Respondent 2 (India): “Being in a financial industry for such a long period I believe that yes biometrics has got some extra importance in the banking system. It is said to be one of the approaches which is highly accurate and a system which has got wide range of deployment environments. Biometric accuracy has enhanced his overall importance in the banking industry, as it is very important to be secured while carrying out banking operations. If there will be any lack of security then it can lead to huge loss to both banking institution and consumer. However, such a system has reduced all fraudulent activities and enhanced the overall performance of banking system” 

Respondent 1 (UK):“In my opinion biometric technology has got great importance in the banking industry. It enhance the performance of banking as individuals need not have to worry about carrying plastic cards with them for withdrawing cash from their bank ATM. Biometric technology has helped individuals to reduce their overall burden with respect to remembrance of password that they need to keep in mind while operating ATM machine. However, use of biometric technology has reduced such burden of consumer as their physical presence can help them in carrying out transaction in a most easy and faster manner. Even it has reduced the time in which banking transaction used to incur as it has fasten the overall speed with which banks use to carry out their operations.” 

Respondent 2 (UK): Biometric technology innovation in banking industry has helped a lot in securing the individual money in their accounts. In my opinion it is has laid down a lot of importance because people do not need to remember their password for withdrawing cash from their ATM accounts. Even it helps in reducing hacking of passwords by experts in the field which can lead to greater financial loss to an individual. Many a times it has been seen observed that many specialized hacker tracks password of ATM cards and withdraw entire cash laying down in an account of an individual. Further, it becomes very difficult in tracing such kind of financial loss by banks and consumers. However, innovation of such kind of technology has helped in reducing such kinds of unethical activities and has protected the money of an individual in a most secured manner” 

  1. To what extent do you feel biometric technology increases security in banking domain?

Respondent 1 (India): “In India it is not seen that there is wide use of biometric technology in the banking domain. But still I believe that there is lot of increased security which can be enhanced by deploying such technology in the banking system. Even with the acceptance of modernized era slowly the face of acceptability towards high tech technology in the area of banking industry has began. This is because biometric technique has laid down positive image in the eyes of individual customer of banks regarding its security benefits that it details to a banking institution for protection against various financial data”

Respondent 2 (India): “As per my view this technological system has got wide variety of features for protecting individual funds that are kept in the banks. Biometric technology lays down security in which individual presence is very much important for carrying out any type of transactions from banks, so it has got increased security in banking domain. If an individual with a bank account will not be present then transactions cannot be carried out. It is because biometric tool has got very unique security characteristic in which presence of bank account holder is important for carrying out safe financial transaction”

Respondent 1 (UK):”As per my opinion biometric technology is a system which recognizes individual body parts for carrying out any banking transaction. Hence, it has got significant importance in the area of banking domain by keeping the security level to very high. System has laid down very high security as in each transaction person need to go for thumb impression, retina scan, and face or voice recognition. In each case presence of particular bank account holder is necessary without that it is very difficult for any other member or relative to carry out transaction on behalf of a particular person. It doesn’t function as per normal ATM password number. This technology is very high tech and requires proper authentication of an person who holds bank account in a particular banking institution”

Respondent 2 (UK):“Yes, I feel that biometric technology increases security in banking domain. This is because this system has got varied features which an individual’s need to clear for accessing any transaction from banking system. Proper scanning process is carried out by such biometric tool for getting proper access to carry out financial transaction from bank. It is a high security technology which has lay down great importance for financial transaction in a more secured manner. Its proper use will enhance the overall performance of banks in the industry”

  1. Which according to you is the most suited biometric technology for you? Why is it the most suitable one?

Respondent 1 (India): “In my opinion fingerprint recognition will be the most suitable biometric technique that can be initiated further in India, as people will be more comfortable in accepting in this system. It has been seen that in a highly populated nation there are many individuals who do not even have their bank accounts and are even illiterate to basic financial aspects that are carried out in banks. Hence, I feel that finger print scan can be one of the most effective biometric technologies that can be used by the banking institution for initiating security and protection of transaction of person” 

Respondent 2 (India):As per me retina scan and fingerprint scan will be the most suited biometric technology that can be use in the banking system. This is because it is difficult for someone to trace retina scan for the purpose of hacking bank account. These are the biometric technique which has got very unique characteristic as no individual can have similar retina and finger print scan to be same. It is the reason why I believe that these are the most suited tools that can be used within the banking industry. Even banks can go for face and voice recognition, but these aspects have some defaults as face and voice of a person can be copied by various experts in the field of this area. Hence, in my opinion retina scan and fingerprint scan are the effective biometric technology that can be use in the banking system” 

Respondent 1 (UK):I believe that every individual biometric system has got their own unique features. However, as per my view face recognition scan can be the best methods that can be adopted in the banking domain.”

Respondent 2 (UK):”I feel that retina scan be the best biometric technique that can be used in banking domain. It is because it can be the most secured way for carrying out banking transaction as every individual has got their own unique retina. I believe that it is one of the biometric techniques which has got very unique characteristic as no individual can have similar retina scan to be same. This is the reason why I believe that it is one of the best innovative technologies which mostly suits the requirement of banking industry.”

  1. According to you, which biometric technology is most convenient in implementing a biometric based security system?

Respondent 1 (India): “Finger print recognition can be the most convenient method that can be implemented in India concerning biometric based security system. This is because it is cheap and can be accepted easily in the banking industry of India. It is a system which is more economical in terms of expenditure that banking industry will be requiring deploying at their various branches.”

Respondent 2 (India): “For the implementation purpose I believe finger print scan will be most convenient biometric based security system. It is because it is cheaper when compared with other biometric technologies that are present in the market. It is also one of the system that requires very less space concerning for the storage of data in the database of banking system”

Respondent 1 (UK): “As per my opinion both finger print and voice recognition can be the most convenient method for implementing a biometric based security system. Both these techniques are highly protective in terms of security for the protection of transaction that consumer carries out while withdrawing or transferring cash from the bank”

Respondent 2 (UK):“According to me the most appropriate biometric based security system that can be implemented in the banking system can be finger print recognition. It is one of the easiest and cheapest techniques that can be deployed while carrying out the financial transaction by consumer”

  1. In which banking channels can the biometrics prove to be most suitable?

Respondent 1 (India): “According to my point of view, biometric technique is most suitable in Branch and ATM banking sector in terms of successful implementation of various banking operations such as withdraw cash, fund transfer, cash deposit or other banking operations in a significant manner. With the help of biometric technology this process has become very easy for an individual to carry out their transaction from anywhere and at any time”. 

Respondent 2 (India): “As per my view biometric technique can be in used in a banking channel in order to facilitate customers for cash withdrawal, fund transfer, balance check for customers etc. I feel that banks can use it in their mobile and internet banking operations. These are some of the features that can be used by individuals with the help of biometric technology in different channels of their banking operations”.

Respondent 1 (UK): “As per my opinion banks can use biometric  in point of sale activity and for verifying and processing credit card transactions in an appropriate manner. These are some of the channel which I believe were biometric can be used in the banking industry. Further, even biometric technique utilization can be made effective in banks as it can help in saving cost which banks need to incur on paper transaction and eliminates password frustration of customers etc”.

Respondent 2 (UK): “According to me, biometric technique will be beneficial for banks in mobile and Internet banking to perform banking transactions such as checking the balance in hand or fund transfer over the telephone etc. With the help of biometric all these activities can be carried out in a most effective manner. Even it helps in reducing manual transactions that banks need to incur while recording transactions. However, using biometric will help in reducing all these manual transaction and all activities be done by this system automatically”.

  1. While using an ATM, which biometric technology should be implemented?

Respondent 1 (India): “Retina scanning biometric technique should be implemented because in this precautions have to been taken with retina scans to be sure that user is a living human being. It is a one of the best technique innovated in biometric as every individual has got a unique retina identity which helps in enhanced security that an individual can lay down towards banking transactions. In this system presence of an individual will be needed as transactions cannot take place if a person with a bank account will not be present at that point of time.

Respondent 2 (India):Finger print should be used because it is the most economical biometric PC user authentication technique. It is the technique which is mostly considered reliable as there is no high authentication or precaution required for implementation of such biometric technique.  Even it is considered less complicated when compared with other biometric tools that are used in the market. Even it is one of the systems that require very small storage space for template and database storage. Hence, in my opinion I will consider this biometric technique to be more efficient in all terms with respect cost, storage and effectiveness while using ATM.”

Respondent 1 (UK):According to my point of view, retina scanning will be beneficial for banks ATM because it is the most accurate physical biometric available today since there is no known way to replicate a retina. It even reduces the risk of error that can take place as no other individual can have an identical retina as a human being. Even it reduces the amount of time that a person need to incur for carrying out banking transaction as scan of retina take place within few seconds. As per my opinion it is one of the added advantage that this biometric carries while performing functioning in banking domain.

Respondent 2 (UK): As per my opinion, voice verification technique should be deployed in banking sector because it recognizes voice of an individual and on that basis banking transactions will be  executed in secure manner. Even it forms a very good security aspects while withdrawing cash from ATM, as every human individual has got high and low frequency pitch while the speak anything.”

  1. Which biometric technologies should be used for authentication in banking applications?

Respondent 1 (India): According to me, figure print technique should be used in banking applications because it is one of the most developed biometrics and easy to use.

Respondent 2 (India):Hand geometry should be used because it concerned with measuring the physical characteristics of the customer hand and fingers. It is associated most commonly with authorized access and it can uniquely identify a user in a system in a proper manner.

Respondent 1 (UK): As per my perception, retina scanning technique can be employed in banks because it emphasized on to identify the unique patterns of the retina of the customers. It is an appropriate tool to conduct financial transactions in every hour a day and in any location, through a website in a secure way.

Respondent 2 (UK):According my opinion, hand geometry technique should be used by bank to overcome financial transactions and identity related thefts in a appropriate way. Banks can easily it can be easily integrated this biometric device into other devices or systems in a systematic manner.

  1. Are the biometric technologies mature enough to be used in the banking application?

Respondent 1 (India):I agree with the fact that with development of biometric techniques it is enough to be used in various banking applications such as branch, ATM and POS banking etc..

Respondent 2 (India):According to me, biometric techniques used in banking applications are enough mature as compared to other traditional techniques because it emphasized on security and transparency concerned.

Respondent 1 (UK):As per opinion, in global era, technology is changing with pace and in such kind of situation, it is essentials for banks to fulfil needs of techno-savvy customers and provide safety on their banking transactions.

Respondent 2 (UK):According to me, biometric techniques are in development phase some improvements are still required to deploy biometric techniques in various banking applications in a secure manner.

  1. Could you please sum up the main benefits of biometric technology utilization in banks?

Respondent 1 (India): The main benefits of biometric techniques are to make secure banking transactions such as  withdraw cash, fund transfer, cash deposit or other banking operations in a significant manner. These all activities can be performed easily using biometric technology in banking domain. Even it reduces the manual transaction that banks need to incur. This system records all transactions automatically concerning specific requirement without any error or mistake. Further, even I believed that biometric techniques, help Banks and Financial institutions to protect their reputations and to build and maintain authenticate public trust. It is because if proper security will be given by banks to the hardcore funds earned by an individual then it is automatically going to enhance the reputation of such banking institution.”

Respondent 2 (India): “As per my opinion, voice recognition biometric technique will be beneficial for banks in order to secure point of sale delivery that allows customers or banks to automatic transfer of the purchased amount from the customer’s account to the vendor’s account in a secure and quick manner.

Respondent 1 (UK):According to me, finger print biometric tool will be helpful for banks because it provides various facilities to customer to  perform banking transactions such as checking the balance in hand or fund transfer over the telephone in an appropriate manner. It enhances the performance of carrying out a transaction as remembering a password for accessing account sometimes become very sophisticated for some individuals. However, with the help of finger print biometric tool remembrance of such passwords gets avoided and it enhances the overall performance of banking transactions.

Respondent 2 (UK):I feel that biometric techniques will be beneficial for banks because it  provides higher security protection for customers to execute their day to day banking transaction in stipulated time without any interruption or security thefts. It is one of the secured banking system and benefit that biometric technique carries while performing customer transactions. I personally believe that innovation of such system has enhanced the banking performance in a much better way by protecting the banking transaction of individuals in a more secured form.

  1. What according to you are the main barriers or limitations in the implementation of biometric technology in banks?

Respondent 1 (India):According to me, depends on user acceptability and multifactor authentication sometimes can create big issue for implementation of biometric. I feel that the lack of knowledge and understanding of possible benefits and drawbacks of biometric techniques in banking sector is major barriers while implementing biometric in banking sector.

Respondent 2 (India):As per my opinion, voice and figure print techniques have still some improvements needed because in some situations biometric is failed to give accurate results such as Voices became weak due to  of illness and fingerprint worn with hard labour work or age. Apart from it, available standards and legislation of country negatively affect adoption of biometric techniques in banking services.

Respondent 1 (UK):According to my opinion, there is some risk associated with privacy and confidentiality if biometric signature gets stolen or misused as well as matter of security & privacy has influence in using Biometric services. I recognized that some health conscious people are against to use of biometric system due to health related issues such as damage to the human body and ethical concerns from the use of physiological data during banking functions.

Respondent 2 (UK):As per my perception, financial literacy and lack of basic education are prohibiting factors leading to non-access of biometric banking services in their day to day banking operations. I feel that religious objections and the culture of banking sector are creating hurdle in successful implementation of biometric system in banking sector.

  1. What according to you are the steps that bank officials should take in order to overcome the limitations?

Respondent 1 (India):According to my opinion, RBI and Bank should create a council to identify and eliminate biometric loopholes that allow risky and abusive practices. Banks should increase transparency in their transactions and try to improve password maintenance, auditing, reporting and record keeping processes.

Respondent 2 (India): I agree with the fact that biometric techniques usage has increased in developed counties. However, in developing counties such as India still people and banks do not prefer to adopt biometric techniques in their banking operations as they are not aware about the usage of such high technology in their banking transactions. This can be overcome when banks create an office of biometric at state and district level with expertise and monitoring banking biometric transactions and increase awareness of people towards use of biometric.

Respondent 1 (UK): According to me, legal issues and data management related issues concerning the protection of user privacy and right that affect biometric techniques adoption in banking services. These are some of the issues which have always played a crucial role in the area of banking industry. It cannot be avoided as it lays down high tech security of financial data of banks customer. Even deployment of such biometric technology needs approval of various government officials leading to cause strict rules against such system. However, banks can overcome these kinds of issues by taking helps from government and appoint technology experts who are proficient in their core areas. Proper knowledge with respect to the technology must be communicated to the government officials for proper implementation of such kind of system in the banking industry.

Respondent 2 (UK): As per my opinion, banks should emphasize to overcome some social and psychological issues about biometric techniques that are creating fear in the minds of customers. Apart from this, banks should focus on effective use of biometric techniques as well as to provide a high level of security by securing the transactions. It will help banks to gain the trust of identity of customers. Proper knowledge with respect to biometric system must be communicated to each individual consumer that is approaching to the banks. It will help them in understanding such a system in a much better way and its acceptability will also increase among such consumer. “

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Strategies To Manage Resistance To Change Assignment Help

1.     Introduction

Strategies To Manage Resistance To Change Assignment HelpChange is the only thing which is constant, whether it is life or organization. Change is essential for every organization in order to sustain in market and grow. However, it completely depends on how successfully the organization manages change. Change management can be effectively undertaken utilizing various change models developed by great philosophers. However, there may be many hurdles in implementation of these models due to resistance of change from stakeholders. These hurdles can be taken care of using various strategies depending on the situation and the kind of change.

In this report, the case of Everything Everywhere (EE), the largest mobile producer, takeover by British Telecom (BT), the dominant company in broadband services, has been analysed. After the appointment of Olaf Swantee as the Chief Executive Officer of EE, he laid off many senior level employees. His strategy was to bring cost cut and improve the customer service which will lead to improvement in revenues. Though he took some harsh decisions, EE progressed in revenue and turnover. However, the next move of EE takeover of BT required some improvement for successful takeover(Neate, 2011).

This reports discusses about the various leadership styles, change models and various strategies to manage resistance of employees to change. This report has attempted to recommend the leadership style Olaf Swantee should follow, and change models that can be utilized. In addition to this, this report also recommends various strategies to manage resistance for the EE takeover of BT.

2. Leadership Style of Olaf Swantee

Over the years of analysis, different styles of leadership have been observed.  Leadership may be situational or transformational depending upon the person implementing it, also the type of work and kind of the working environment.  In a way to see, both the styles are effective and approaches towards organisational leadership. Let us consider both the styles in spotlight.

Situational leadership is a kind of management style which is developed by the gurus like Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey. Situational Leadership banks on the idea that there is no best style of leadership. Successful leaders are the ones who can adapt their style to any given situation. It consists of following 4 main types(Joseph, 2015):

  • Coaching: This needs great deal of leadership style that involves a lot of hands on involvement in an employees work process. This style would be most beneficial when employee displays his/ her weaknesses that need improvement.
  • Directing: This involves taking over a challenging situation and applying specific knowledge and experience towards the right direction. It also includes framing of goals and objectives for work that are clearly established to the staff.
  • Delegating: This style places more weightage on shoulders of employees than the manager, since manager provides guidance and support only when requested by any of the employees. This style is most effective when staff is more experienced and with the capacity of working independently.
  • Supporting styles: Here, manager plays more of a motivational role, where the main function of manager is to instil confidence in workers, leading them on becoming more self-sufficient and productive.

In transformational leadership, the leader mainly focuses on taking up visionary position and motivates his fellow employees towards the achievement of the goal. It often provides right make up for the team to flourish. It quite well works as an incorporation of different theories to that encapsulates leading through inspiration(EBA, 2015).

A new dimension to this theory was added when it provided the base which was ethical and moral based in leadership and focuses on 3 main ways to transform the fellow people:

  • Inculcating the culture of bringing up importance of the tasks
  • Directing their focus, more towards the team goals than the individual interests
  • Higher order needs activation and motivation for success

Moreover, leaders in this style create succession plans developed by people, whereby allowing them to take up the initiative.

Transformational Leadership model may be considered as following cycle(EBA, 2015):

  • Idealised Influence: Lead by example is the key, while setting up the expectations.
  • Intellectual Stimulation: Encouraging learning and growth.
  • Individual Consideration: Coaching and empowerment towards success.
  • Inspirational Motivation: Motivating to achieve new heights.

Considering Olaf Swantee, Chief Executing officer of EE, in running up the UK’s leading Communication Company. Before this, Olaf was a member of the Orange executive board, heading the Group’s Europe large division. In addition to this, he ran the chain of purchase and sales worldwide of the company(ME, 2015).

He can be considered to be implementing transformational leadership style since he envisions through a future in the field he is active in. He has a vision further also putting up the expectations for the Gen Y employees. Apart setting up the expectations, he also states cost and advantages of the upcoming trends in telecommunication industry. In addition to this, he has persuasive kind of personality. He is very informal and open which portrays his transformational leadership style.

However, for his next role in the Everything Everywhere takeover of British Telecom, it is recommended to adopt the situational style of leadership. He can follow the blend of situational type. This will assist him in managing resistance to change, boost the morale of the employees which will improve their work efficiency. Olaf Swantee should focus on supporting style as this will build confidence among the employees for the takeover and employees in turn will support him in the process of takeover productively.

3.     Change Models used in the Takeover

 3.1 Change Management

Change Management can be described as process of utilizing various techniques and tools to manage the change in organization in order to achieve desired outcome. Change Management requires alteration in various disciplines of company such as strategy, structure and culture depending on the change in environment. Change Management integrates various change models to utilize tools that assist the organization as well as employees in successful transition and desired result.

3.2 Motives to change

There are various internal and external factors that demand the need for change. These external factors could be change in market environment, technology, macro-economic factors or legal environment. The internal factors that demand change includes restructuring, span of control, upgradation of technology or change in processes of work.

3.3 Change Models

There are various change models proposed by philosophers to manage change in the organization. These models describe the techniques and steps that the organization can adopt in order to conduct smooth transition.

3.3.1 John Kotter’s Change Model

Strategies To Manage Resistance To Change Assignment HelpFigure 1: Kotter’s 8step Change Model

Source: Nauheimer, H, 2009. Change Model 3: John Kotter’s 8 Steps of Leading Change. 

John Kotter has defined 8-step model for effective implementation of change. This steps are explained below(Nauheimer, 2009):

  1. Form a quick sense to resolve: For the effective result of change, it has to be carried out quickly in order to evade loss of stimulus. The untimely or delay in implementation may lead to inefficiency of the change affecting the aim of change.
  2. Creating alliance with stakeholders: Transformation cannot be instigated by one person or only top management. For the successful implemented of change, it is essential to communicate and convince the stakeholders of the organization for the need of change. With the alliance of stakeholders, the change can be effectively applied which results in desired outcome.
  3. Creating Strategy and values:The organization has to create strategy to implement change. There has to be a vision for the change. This will give the clarity of the need for change. For creating strategy for change, the top management should involve stakeholders for better delivery.
  4. Communication of vision: Once the vision is created and approved by the top management, it is essential to communicate to the employees involved in the process and initiative.
  5. Empower employees: In order to manage resistance to change, the staff should be engaged with the process of consultation as they are one who are closely involved in the process.
  6. Continuity in improvement: It is essential for organization to maintain impetus in successful implementation of change. This incremental and continuous improvement assist the organization in proficient short term success.
  7. Consolidation and achieving more: the short term success on continuous basis encourage the employees to achieve and implement more change.
  8. Implementing new approaches: It is not the thumb rule that the successful strategy or approach used earlier will give success in future too. Hence, it is essential for the organization to seek new approaches and become more innovative and effective.

3.3.2 7S Change Model

Mckinsey Consulting developed 7S Change model describing how effectively the organization can manage change. The model assists to understand the objectives of organization and enhance the alignment of the seven elements of the organization. The model is explained using the seven elements which are divided in two parts, namely hard elements and soft elements. Each of them is described below(EBA, 2015):

Hard elements

  • Structure: delegating task, line of reporting and co-ordination
  • Strategy: developing competitive strategy to form competitive edge
  • System: various processes and supporting systems of organization such as financial reporting, information technology system etc.

Soft Elements

  • Shared values: developing values and behaviour in the organization to form the culture.
  • Style: the leadership style used in organization
  • Staff: type of employees and number of employees in the organization
  • Skill: competencies and skill of the employees.

3.3.3 Lewin’s theory of Change

Strategies To Manage Resistance To Change Assignment Help1Figure 3: Kurt Lewin Theory of Change

Source: Kaminski, J., 2011. Theory applied to informatics – Lewin’s Change Theory. CJNI: Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 6 (1), Editorial.

Kurt Lewin proposed the change model naming Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model. This model rely on prior learning of rejection and replacement. According to this model, there are three stages of change. Lewin is of the view that, firstly, the staff should be convinced for the change explaining and communicating them the concern areas. Next step would be finding the array of solutions to be undertaken. As a final point, refreezing that includes reinforcement and formalization of change. These steps are explained in three stages below(Kaminski, 2011):

  • Unfreeze:This stage involves reducing the elements that are endeavouring to maintain position and disassembling the mind-set of current status. This can be done by convincing and giving the provocative to issue to make the staff understand the necessity for change and seeking for solution.
  • Change: This stage is the transition phase wherein new values, behaviour and attitudes should be developed in order to bring change in processes, structure and techniques. Though, initially there may be muddle in the processes since the pattern of work is changed, things settle down with time.
  • Refreeze:This final stage of refreezing requires crystallization and revision of new processes and team. Till the time the changes are not formalized and reinforced, the organization continues with the former processes. Hence, it is essential to formalize the team and process in order to avoid the low-level effectiveness and work efficiency of staff.

3.4 Managing BT takeover

In the case of merger of T-Mobile and Orange, Olaf Swantee, the Chief Executive of the company Everything Everywhere, adopted the sudden change which affected the mind-set of the employees. Within a day of his new responsibility, he fired employees from senior level and gave notice to other top level executives that their jobs too are at risk. He was of the opinion that there were many senior executives and their responsibilities were overlapping. Hence, Olaf’s strategy was to focus on the cost of the company and improve the customer service. According to him, the customers should be at the top of pyramid and at the bottom should be chief executives(Rushton, 2011). However, with his open style of leadership, he was successful in bringing the growth in return and improvement in customers’ service. Olaf was of the opinion that the strategy of British Telecom was similar to that of EE. The strategy of BT is majorly to improve experience of customers and achieve sustainable growth in revenue(Eurocomms, 2014).

However, the EE takeover of BT could be managing effectively and efficiently by using the 7S change model developed by Mckinsey consulting.  For the successful takeover, 7S model will be helpful in analysingand aligning of all the seven elements such as strategy, structure, system, staff, skill, shared values and style. Based on the framework of this model, the structure of the takeover is to be formed, so that appropriate strategy can be formed. Since the aim of both the companies is to improve experience of customer and increase the growth in revenue, BT can plan for setting the new systems or may continue with the current ones. Once the hard elements are designed and aligned, the soft elements such as sharing values, staff, skill requirement and style of leadership can be decoded upon. The integration and alignment of all these seven element is essential for the successful takeover and desired outcome.

4.     Managing resistance to change

4.1 Reasons for resistance to change

The resistance by the stakeholder or employees for longer period or on large-scale can affect the efforts to implement change. Hence, it is essential to manage this resistancein order to implement change successfully. However, the four main reasons for change are(Jacoby, 2011):

  • Less tolerance level for change: There are employees are interested only in stability of work and do not wish to accept or attempt for change.
  • Self-Interest: Some employees are interest only in the gain for self and not the organization. Such people resist change if it is not for self-interest as they fail to understand that if change is beneficial to organization, then it is ultimately beneficial to employees too.
  • Disagreement on the need to change: certain stakeholders do not understand the advantages of the change and assess the change differently. They may not agree for the reason for change.
  • Communication issues:there may be chances of miscommunication or misunderstanding about change. So many stakeholders resist change since they are not provided with appropriate and correct information.

4.2 Strategies to manage resistance to change

However, in order to manage resistance to change, organization should attempt to know the correct and exact reason for this resistance to change. Accordingly the action plan and strategy can be adopted to manage the type of resistance. The following strategies individually or mix ox strategies that can be adopted for EE takeover ofBT in order to manage resistance to change are explained below(Jacoby, 2011):

Educating and communicating: Communicating up-front with employees for the need of takeover will make the employees understand better and avoid misunderstanding about the change.

Participating and involving: Engaging employees in the process of takeover will make them go as per flow and understand better which will ultimately lower their resistance to change.

Providing Support: The organization can provide support to the resisting employees by providing training, and counselling to deal with their anxiety for change.

Negotiating: The organization can offer incentives to the employees who are resistant and ask them to support in the effort for takeover.

Co-optation: The organization can adopt co-option which involves choosing the leader of employees who are resisters and engaging him in the effort of change.

Coercion: The organization can force the employees to either accept the change or resistance of change may result into loss of job or non-promotion.

4.3 Recommendations to Olaf Swantee

Olaf Swantee has a transformational style of leadership. He has the persuasive personality to stimulate the employees. During the merger of Orange and T-Mobile, he had the vision and strategy to focus on improvement of customer service. So within a day, he laid off many senior level employees and sent notice to other executives about their job at risk. This preparedness of implementing change and strategy though was kind of harsh on the employees, but proved to be fruitful to the organization as Everything Everywhere grew to some extend and reflected progress in customer service. However, these kind of harsh step would have created anxiety and fear in the mind of employees. As a result, the employees would not find it easy to resist the Everything Everywhere takeover of British Telecom.

Hence, in order to manage the resistance of the employees to change, it is recommended to Olaf Swantee to adopt mix of managing resistance strategies. Since, he has persuasive style, he can adopt strategies of managing resistance such as educating, communicating, engaging employees and negotiating with them for the effective and successful takeover process.

5. References

  • EBA, 2015. The 7S Model and Change. Educational Business Articles.
  • EBA, 2015. Transformational Leadership. Educational Business Articles.
  • Heraclitus, 2015. Kotters 8 step process for leading change. l.:s.n.
  • Jacoby, J., 2011. Strategies for Managing Resistance to Change. Emergent Journal,
  • Joseph, C., 2015. Four Basic Leadership Styles Used by Situational Managers.
  • Kaminski, J., 2011. Theory applied to informatics – Lewin’s Change Theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics , 6(1).
  • McCleskey, J. A., 2014. Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly.
  • Nauheimer, H., 2009. Change Model 3: John Kotter’s 8 Steps of Leading Change. Kotter International.

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This is a solution of Developing the Business Assignment Help in which we discuss Developing business.

Problem Statement:

Strategic alliance is effective for developing the business status in the industry but there are certain critical issues related to it. Gari (2008) focused on the impact of strategic alliance over the workforce of the organisations and stated that strategic alliance initiates changes in the organisational structure and culture which may have positive as well as negative influence over the employees. However, strategic alliance has reflected the growth for the majority of the firms opting for it. It has brought a new revolution in the corporate industry by unifying the business houses and reducing the competition in the market. Mockler (2009) explained that the influence of strategic alliance on reducing the competition may hamper the quality of products and services produced by the firms.

Faulkner (2009) stated that longevity of an alliance depends on the viability of the conditions on which the alliance was formed. Change in market situations and business stature may also hamper the alliance. Issues like change management, business growth, goal setting, etc. are influential in the developing an alliance. The alliance between Shaca Construction and Urban Fabrik has taken place mainly on the basis of business expansion and revenue earnings. The terms and conditions of the alliance have to be honoured by both the parties for sustaining the alliance and making fruitful.  Strategic alliance without doubt comes with added advantages for the firms in the treaty but the organization should ensure that the firms are capable of holding up the alliance for a prolonged time to reap the full benefits of the procedure. Hofstede (2008) explained that increasing alliances among the corporate players, particularly in construction industry are creating a global community that aims to develop a stable economic condition in the world. The problem is their diverse cultures and structure which may create dispute and hamper the entire process.

Research Aim:

The study aims to reveal the causes that are urging the construction industry towards creating strategic alliances. The benefits and disadvantages of the alliance process and its effect on the stakeholders of the firms will also be discussed in the study through a case study of the impact of the alliance of the firms i.e. Shaca Construction  and Urban Fabrik.

Research Objectives:

  • To study the effectiveness of strategic alliances in the international market.
  • To critically analyse the rationale behind adopting strategic alliance techniques.
  • To assess the impact of strategic alliance between Shaca Construction and Urban Fabrik to evaluate the benefits and pitfalls for the firms.

Structure of the Research:

Introduction: The chapter deals with brief introduction of the topic to the reader. The chapter includes the aims, objectives, research questions, rationale, and purpose and study background.

Literature Review: It deals with the studies and the theories of previous authors on the present topic. Various models on the present topic are studied in the chapter.

Research Methodology: It involves the philosophy, approach, and sample size and data collection process of the study.

Presentation of Data: This chapter presents the raw data collected from the respondents via survey.

Analysis of Data: The chapter involves analysing the data collected through primary research.

Discussion and Interpretation of the Findings: This chapter deduce information from the primary data and discuses about the possible outcomes of the study.

Conclusion, Implications and Recommendations: in the final chapter of the study, the researcher connects the objectives with the data collected and provides suitable recommendation in respect to strategic alliance process.

 Conclusion:

The chapter follows a brief introduction of the topic. Aims, objectives and questions would help in conducting the research methodically. The chapter also includes the rationale and purpose behind conducting the study.  It can be concluded that strategic alliance between the two construction companies (Shaca Construction and Urban Fabrik) would help to recover from the recent credit crunch and achieve strategic goals.

Literature Review

Literature review analyses the secondary data collected by the researcher and evaluates the historical development in the research topic. The evaluation process also includes analysis of the theories and the issues not covered by the existing models and concepts. The literature review provides the analyst an overview of the situation and proper background knowledge (Gulati, 2009).The researcher has focused on the alliance of Shaca Construction and Urban Fabrik for evaluating the process of strategic alliance and its impact on the global business industry.

Strategic alliance in the construction business provides a useful means for cost sharing, risk allocation, pooling of resources, technology transfer, organisational innovation and earn economies of scale. It also assits the construction managers, particularly in the public sector to evaluate tenders and build cooperative relationships with the other construction stakeholders. The current literature focuses on the theorical underpinnings relating to strategic alliance benefits and drawbacks, particularly in the construction sector.

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This is a solution of Australian Contract Law Assignment Help in which we discuss the event occurred in Brazil, the company BHP Billiton Ltd.

Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Conduct in 2010

Australian Contract Law Assignment HelpAs accordance to the event occurred in Brazil, the company BHP Billiton Ltd cannot come out of the issue without taking the responsibility. The company is doing mining over that place and whatever happened to the site is more or less the impact of the dam that the company did not look after. Bowles et al. (2016) mentioned that the Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Conduct in 2010 clearly states a company, which is a member of Engineers Australia, must follow the guidelines mentioned in the ethics code. The very starting segment of demonstrating integrity suggests it clearly that a company must be well informed when they are working on a particular issue. Here, from the incident of a mudslide at the Valley of Gualaxo River, it is proved that they had not at all given importance to know that what can be the consequence of the breakage of the dam. As a co-owner of the mining project with the local company Samarco, it was the duty of the company to be well informed and aware of the result and not doing that; they made a violation of the ethical codes (Abc.net.au, 2016). They have also told the localities that there is nothing to be feared off from the project, and no warnings are being issued to the villagers of Bento Rodrigues.

However, being honest and trustworthy is another important code mentioned ethical code practice. Romani and Szkudlarek, (2014) pointed out that the law explicitly indicates that one must accept the faults if they committed one and open to fair criticism. However, from the current incident of Brazilian village, it is clear that the company has distanced itself from the mining mishap, which is unethical, and the company must take the ethical responsibility and help the victims of the mudslide. The company though had promised to evacuate the local people in case of any disaster, but it is evident from the happening that they have also failed to keep the promises (Engineersaustralia.org.au, 2016).

However, another important code of ethics is promoted sustainability and must remain concern about the public and foster the wellbeing of the community and environment. The Company also did not mention the potential impact of the dam and due to that, not only the local community that has suffered but also the environment has suffered dangerously. The water system of the river has been affected, and nothing in the river life has lived. However, as a responsible company, BHP Billiton Ltd has ordered an investigation to find out that what is responsible for this natural disaster. Though the claim is that the company has overlooked the warning, but it is subject to the inquiry.

It is also a responsibility of the organization BHP Billiton Ltd to communicate properly with the partner company Samarco, which is also a standard company in mining and maintains a high regard. However, the investigation of BHP would also focus on the issues that how Samarco is keeping the level on the practical field in compare to the others.

Thus is it is proved that there are certain areas where the company has failed to live up the with the codes of ethical practices of the enterprise.

Proposals to be considered in the coming time:

It is important that the company BHP Billiton Ltd must take the legal issues into consideration before investing in different problems. There are some critical issues has come in front while discussing the role of the company in the catastrophic disaster in Brazil. However, the laws are changing on a constant basis to give more protection to the people and the environment. Thus in such situation, the company must look after into the strides with more severe thought. Based on the issues aroused in BHP Billiton Ltd, in the case of iron mining in co-collaborating with Samarco, here are individual proposals likely to be proposed.

Showing integrity: This one of the core proposal to the board is to showing necessary integrity and act only based the conscience. The company had board members in Samarco, but they did not bring the issues related to dam under the table despite knowing that it might affect the life of the people of the Bento Rodrigues. The company officials must be careful from the next time as it not only affects the business reputation but also legal charges can be framed against them. O’leary et al. (2013) mentioned that it is very needful that company and its officials must act aptly in case they felt anything to be wrong.

Accepting Criticism: The company must be prepared of listening to any  criticism, as valid criticism can be constructive also. Also, Bowles et al. (2016) mentioned that one must explain the reasons of a particular working.

Gaining adequate knowledge: Another important issue is to obtain proper knowledge regarding a particular issue. It has been seen that BHP Billiton Ltd has ignored the problems related to the dam in earlier. They had trusted Samarco, but failed to point out the issues of concern, and thus they had been held responsible in issues of dam collapsing.

Communication errors: It has also been clear that a lack of communication was present there due to which the members of BHP Billiton Ltd who were also a board member of Samarco failed to point out the issues related to the company (Consumerlaw.gov.au, 2016).

Stay with the community: Another major fault of the company, which has heat them at the bottom line is that they were not with the people during a problem. None of the officials has visited the place, neither provided any relief to the victims of the mud slide. They also failed to cope up with their promises of being with local people, but somehow they have failed.

Environment Concern: the changing laws are getting very strict with a particular reference to the environment. Thus, the company must concentrate that whatever the project they have taken must not misbalance the ecosystem of the environment, which happened in the case of Brazilian valley.

Therefore from these proposals, it is clear that the laws may get stricter to safeguard the people and the environment, but the company must use these rules in a way which makes the company beneficiary and must not suffer any economic hit.

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This is a solution of Managing Across Borders Assignment Help in which we discuss business management of the organization.

In this specific study, the cross border business management of the organization TCS will be discussed in the details. Additionally the similarities and the differences of the cross borders operation and the national operation will also be described accordingly. The necessary skill sets of the managers in the cross border activities of the organization will also be described in details. The challenges associated with the international business operation along with the different legislative stringency will also be considered as the germane aspect of the discussion in this specific business report. In the concluding section of the study the chief points of the entire discussion will be summarized in order to draw the appropriate conclusion regarding the issue of the cross border operation of the international businesses.

 Discussion

As far as the views of Bartlett, (2011) are concerned, the international business operation is fraught with risks from different dimensions along with the chances of the success factors which can augment the organization with enormous growth and the stability. Besides this the international operation of the organizations in the business related aspects also provides the opportunity to build the proper brand name of  the organization in the global market, which have quite great impact on the local, regional and the international market as well. In this case, of the Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), the organization has their international operation in the several other countries apart from India. Hence, the managers of the organization are also required to have that much excellence and capabilities to handle and operate the international business with efficiency. There are several aspects like the varying cultures, different working environment, completely different sentiments of the workers in different geographic locations etc. The mangers are required to take care of the entire factors in order to run the business successfully. Additionally Verbeke, (2013) added that, TCS has the reputation as the employee friendly organization in the worldwide scenario. Thus, the operational excellence of the managers of the TCS can be comprehended accordingly.

In order to discuss about the cross national similarities and the dissimilarities in the operational practices from the management perspective some facts of the Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) are required to be discussed in depth. TCS always follow the rules of 30% in the employment process of the international operations, as described by Fournier & Mendling, (2015). The organization always employs 30% of the lead management staffs from their mother organization from India, and apart from that, the other 70% of the employees are selected from the local location of the business operation. For example, after 2005 when the organization started to acquire a range of the global organization worldwide, the organization started to follow the rule of 30%. In the Australia operation, the organization employed more than 75% of the local employees of the Australia in the business. In contrast Deresky, (2010) opined that, the organization could have saved considerable amount of dollars if the skilled peoples from India would have been employed overseas. However, in order to help the Australian economy with a purpose of the sustainable business development, TCS had taken steps of the local employment policies. As far as the unemployment data of Australia is concerned according to the Phillips curve the rate of the unemployment has been brought down to the level of 5.1% in 2006, in which TCS solely has contributed 0.28% as the foreign organization, as mentioned by Dinnie, (2015). Hence, it can be mentioned that the employment policies of the TCS in the foreign countries are mostly similar. On the other hand, the prime dissimilarities are the provision modification power in the intra organizational operation are provided to the National managers of the country. The international managers are independent but need to clarify and required to give their proper explanations for implementation of the strategic movement in the organization overseas. As per the views of Dunning, (2014), this have might be introduced to prevent the total decentralization of the power in the organization, as the company TCS generally does not follow the subsidiary business in the overseas location. TCS owns the business and run it efficiently by their superior management skills.

However, this training cost the organization almost USD $1 million worldwide. After the training session within the next 2 years period, the organization experienced a growth the human resource development and the overall employee retention margin increased by 3.83% in comparison with the previous five years span.  For example, the laid-back working pattern of Australia is quite different from the high involvement working structure of UK. Thus, in order to develop the skills sets the organization TCS has taken different approaches as well, as described by Wild et al., (2014). The Australian working culture is more innovation based than the disciplined UK working force. Thus, the managers of the organization TCS has given proper effort to nurture the existing skills of the employees in different geographic location, rather than imposing the disciplinary action on the employees as universal standards. As described by Verbeke, (2013), in order to extend the future business of Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) in China, the organization will have to remain more concerned regarding the cultural stringencies. Thus, it can be mentioned that the organization TCS has reflected properly upon the aspects of the training requirement of their managers in order help them emerge as the global business leaders. This approach has helped them to lead the business to a completely new height while remaining concerned about the cultural differences of the different countries.

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This is a solution of Type of Investment Assignment Help that describes about The intention of such type of investment is to preserve the value of investment portfolio.

Beta values and calculation of expected rate of return using CAPM

(i) The calculated beta of Altona Mining Limited is 1.55.

(ii) Risk Free Rate = 4%

Market Risk Premium is 6%

As per Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Required Rate of Return = Risk Free Rate + Beta X Market Risk premium

= 4% + 1.55 X 6%

= 13.30%

(iii) Conservative Investment refers to as the investment into the low risk or fixed income securities generally in large cap equities. The intention of such type of investment is to preserve the value of investment portfolio. With regards to the investment in the shares of Alton Mining Limited, it cannot be considered as conservative investment since the beta of the company is 1.55 which means that the investment is not risk free. However the risk is low and share price is less volatile but the investment is not risk free and thus it is not a conservative investment (Fabozzi, 2012).

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

(i) Calculation of WACC

The rate of interest on the major long-term source of finance of company which is a financial lease liability is EURIBOR + 2.5%. Considering the EURIBOR presently is -0.379%, the rate of interest for the company (Kd) will be 2.12% (-0.379% + 2.5%).

The estimated cost of equity capital (Ke) as calculated above is 13.3%.

The equity of company is $ 61,779,000 and the total debt of the company is $3,013,000. The tax rate is 30%.

WACC = Kd(1-t) X Wd + Ke X We

Where, Kd is cost of debt

Ke is the estimated cost of equity

t is the tax rate applicable on company

Wd is the weight of debt

We is the weight of equity

Thus, WACC = 2.12% (1-0.30) X 3,013/(3,013 + 61,779) + 13.30 X 61,779/3,013 + 61,779)

= 1.48% X 0.047 + 13.30 X 0.953

= 12.74%

 Implications of higher WACC

Higher WACC represents higher risk for the operations of the company. A WACC indicates the cost of different sources of finance including cost of payment of debt obligations, and cost of equity financing. Thus higher WACC will result in higher costs for the company on the prospective investment projects such as Cloncurry Project. Thus the cost of proposed investments of the company will be more than as estimated by the management evaluation due to a higher WACC and also it will result in higher risks for the company (Antelo, 2012).

Analysis of gearing ratios and improvement towards optimal capital structure

(i) During the last four years the gearing ratio of company has declined at a substantial rate. The gearing ratio in the year 2012 was 0.29 which declined to 0.15 in the year 2014 and 0.016 in 2015. The less gearing ratio for the company implies optimal capital structure and solvency of the company in the long-term. The declining trend in the gearing ratios of the company shows the low risk of company. However very less gearing is also not optimum for the capital structure since the capital structure of the company in this case comprise more of equity as compared to debt. The capital structure will not be stable if the gearing ratios of company will tend to decline substantially (Kim, 2012).

(ii) Since last few years the company suffered failures due to its debt loads therefore the company therefore the prospective investment project of the company, Cloncurry Project as reported by the Chairman Kevin Maloney will be developed with substantial allowance for working capital amount and overruns without recourse to debt in order to amend the gearing ratio.

Dividend Policy

During the year company declared and paid unfranked dividend of 3 cents per share and equity capital return of 12 cents per share. The policy of payment of dividend includes creation of profit reserve from the allocated amount of retrained earnings preserved by the company for the possible dividend payments in future. The dividend policy of company is focused on payment to shareholders rather than retaining the earnings.

 Letter of recommendation

To,

The Client

Subject: Recommendations for investment

It is to provide the information to assist in making decision about whether to invest in the shares of Altona Mining Limited or not. The recommendation will be based on the financial analysis of the company conducted for the past four years and the data and figures extracted from the annual report of company.

From the analysis and evaluation of financial performance of the company and calculation and analysis of its financial ratios it can be concluded that the company is earning good returns for its investors and is paying dividend regularly. Thus if the investor has an objective of earning returns from the investment with long term growth prospective it is recommended to invest in the shares of the company. Also it can be observed that the return on assets of company is less than its required rate of return or estimated cost of capital but the company is in less risky position due to its gearing ratios and sound liquidity position.

Since you have a diversified portfolio, the investment of $1million in the shares of the company is recommended to you.

Regards

Investment Advisor

Conclusion

From the above report about the financial analysis and detailed information extracted from the various sources and research via internet it can be concluded that the financial analysis helps in deciding about whether to invest in the shares of a company or not. The investment decision is crucial for an investor and therefore it shall be based on a complete analysis and evaluation rather than available information in the report of directors of the company.

References
  • Antelo, M. & Peon, D. 2012, Financial Markets, Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Balan, A.I., Bîrsan, M. & Susu, S. 2011, “ECONIMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALISYS – DETERMINANT OF BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS”,  Seria Stiinte Economice, , pp. 778-785.
  • Fabozzi, F.J. 2012, Encyclopedia of Financial Models, 3 Volume Set, Volume 3 Vol. Set (1),John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Halili E., Saleh A. and Zeitun R. 2015, ‘Governance and Long-Term Operating Performance of Family and Non-Family Firms in Australia’ , Studies in Economics and Finance, 32, no.4, pp.398-421.
  • Harris J. 2015, “VIDEO PPR-TV: Shareholders Sign-off on Altona’s (ASX:AOH) A$80 Million Capital Return”, ABN Newswire
  • History of ASX, viewed Jan 30 2016 ,http://www.asx.com.au/about/asx/history/history ASX.htm.
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This is a solution of Business Activities Assignment Help that describes about realized that loss is termed as capital loss that get incurred by the individual taxpayer and his spouse.

This case put emphasis over the issue that the loss with the sale of an isolate property is deductible or not under the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 subsection 51(1). It was realized that loss is termed as capital loss that get incurred by the individual taxpayer and his spouse. Such kind of capital loss get adjusted against the capital gain and business income is not utilised for the purpose of setting off capital loss. The land owners were not indulge into land selling business activities and with this effect the sale of land get considered as the sale of capital asset. Therefore, the realisation of excessive amount or loss should get considered as capital profit or capital loss and get separately assessable under capital gain tax regime. The earned income was not fall under the subsection 25(1). Along with this it is not considered as the profit because it is not an profit making scheme by the tax-payer. Later on property was leave for the purpose of farming and the available assets render supportive fact that it was sold for realising and didn’t considered as business or profit making purpose (Barrett, 2012).

Casimaty v FC of T 97 ATC 5135

As per this case taxpayer get the piece of land “Action View” from his father which was utilised for the purpose of conducting farming activities. The business activities didn’t yield the profits and results into increase in the debts ratio and with this effect the health of taxpayer also get deteriorate. Due to these unfavourable conditions there was no other option remain with him except selling it. With this effect taxpayer sold out the land for a considerable amount in order to meet out his debts. High court gives decision that taxpayer need to pay taxes over the earned profits as per the section 25(1) of Income Tax Assessment Act 1936. Later on federal court reverse the decision made by the high court with the reason that taxpayer didn’t make profits under any kind of profit making scheme or didn’t run any such business activities in order to sale or purchase of the land during the whole period of 20 years. When taxpayer get the land to the sale of land, it get utilised for the purpose of farming activities. The fact presented in the case clearly stated that taxpayer didn’t have any kind of intention in order to make sale of land for the purpose of running farming activities or business. The only motive behind selling land is to set-off their debts and other factors in order to carry on farming activities. The earned profit is termed as capital profit and it didn’t get assessable for the purpose of taxation (Murray, 2013).

Moana Sand Pty Ltd v FC of T 88 ATC 4897

This case make inclusion of such taxpaying company that get engaged into such business activities like selling sand over the property acquired by the company only. Once the sand get exhausted that piece of land was kept for the purpose of its subdivision. But before it they sold out the land for amounting $500,000. The court stated that they excessive amount earned by them with the sale of land need to be taxable under Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 section 25(1) and 26(a). But the land was not purchased for the purpose of making subdivision and sale purpose in order to make profits but it get sold out before business activities get completed and with this effect excessive income is considered as the assessable income for charging tax. The reason behind it was not justified by the court as why the income is considered as the assessable income for tax purpose as there was no such motive of resale of land (Evans, 2012).

VII. Crow v FC of T 88 ATC 4620

This case put emphasis over the nature of the transactions that get utilised for determining the business activity in order to make purchase and sale of the land (or properties). The court stated that systematic and repetitive transactions carried out by the business in order to make purchase or sale of pieces or subdivision of land and its stake in pieces constitute a business. Hence the income earned with the effect of these transactions results into taxable income under the section 25(1) of Income Tax Assessment Act 1936. As the earned profits with the help of the transactions get taxable so the losses arise also get deductible from their capital gains. The reason rendered by the court behind this decision was taxpayer get involved in activities such as purchase of land for the purpose of selling subdivision and the motive behind these activities to earn huge profits through it. There were lots of systematically and sequentially transactions are performed for the purpose of getting profit. The earned profits with the help of these transactions get taxable and if there will be any losses it get deducted from their earned profits (Webster & Augustinos, 2014).

VIII. McCurry & Anor v FC of T 98 ATC 4487

This case put emphasis over the scheme of profit making. As per this case two brother acquire the land and further demolish the old building that was build over their purchased piece of land and make construction of three townhouses over it in order to make sales of these to earn adequate profit by selling them individually. They put effective efforts for the purpose of selling these townhouses before the completion in order to attain early profits. But they didn’t get the favorable or profitable bid for sale and with this effect they didn’t sell them and utilize them for their personal use by using them for personal residence with their family. After the period of one and half year they make sales of their property. Over this court stated that the profits earned by them with the sale of townhouses was fall under the profit making scheme and with this effect the earned income is taxable and income become asses sable for the purpose of paying taxes. It is also identified that even utilizing the houses for the purpose of residential purpose didn’t make the earned profits non-asses sable because the activities performed by them fall under profit making scheme and the profit earned with the sale of the property results in asses sable income for both brothers (Gupta, 2013).

References

Barrett, J. 2012, “Democratic discourse, taxation and hypothetical”, Journal of Australian Taxation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 89-117.

Evans, C. 2012, “Reviewing the reviews: A comparison of recent tax reviews in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand or “a funny thing happened on the way to the forum””,Journal of Australian Taxation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 146-182.

Gupta, R. 2013, “Inland revenue’s powers of search and seizure and taxpayers’ constitutional rights”, Journal of Australian Taxation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 133-160.

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This is a solution of Personal Development Plan Assignment Help that describes about The employee must have the habit of waking up early in order to effectively manage their time.

Review personal development plan against original objectives

Personal objectives that are expected from an employee are as follows:

  • Time management

Time can be managed well by prioritizing the important work and attending them first. The employee must have the habit of waking up early in order to effectively manage their time.

  • Critical thinking

Critical thinking helps in solving a problem in a strategic manner. The critical thinking can be best developed by handling real life problems.

  • Better decision making ability

Employees must be made to solve a lot of case studies in order to help them take better decisions. The best decisions making ability comes with solving real work based problems and trying to take a control of them.

  • Business awareness

Business awareness comes with reading a variety of magazines and newspaper on a daily basis. Business awareness helps the employee to be aware of the recent trends in the market.

  • Leadership skills

Leadership determine the culture and structure of an organization. Leadership also determine the employee behavior at the work place.

  • Good communication skills

Good communication skills are required for the interaction with the employees. It is gained with lectures and interacting in person.

  • Teamwork

Teamwork comes with participating in various games and activities which requires working in a team. Teamwork helps in improving the quality of the work in the company.

  • Better knowledge of subject

Better knowledge of the subject and the recent information helps in increasing the self-confidence.

  • Guidance and mentoring

Proper mentoring and guidance is required at the time of training of the employees. It helps them learn the basics in a better manner.

Evaluate the effectiveness of personal development of leadership and management skills.

In order to evaluate the leadership and the management skills it must be measured and recorded. The result of the leadership and the management skills are as follows:

Personal leadership and development program helps in better management of the time and completing my task on time. The beginning of the time management program is difficult at first but it gets easy as the time passes.

Critical and strategic thinking is also required for good leadership skills. Critical thinking helps in taking the important decisions in real life problem. Critical thinking develops by case and problem solving.

There should be business awareness of the current trends of the market. A person can be aware of the recent trends by reading various magazines and reading newspapers daily. Developing good communication skills is also for interacting with the employees. Communication skills can be developed by watching different seminars and lectures. Teamwork exercise help the employees to coordinate with each other in a better way. (Charted Management Institute, 2013)

The activities which are not very efficient are given below:

  • Too much reading of books and less practical work. This reduces the exposure to the real life problems.
  • Video lectures do not make things very clear at times.
  • Guidance by a leader can be sometimes annoying for the employees.

Analyse areas for further development and update personal development plan.

Objectives ActivityTime requiredAssessment
Time managementThe best way is to maintain a list of important work.6 monthsThe person should wake up early and work in a more organized manner (Amazonaws, 2015)
Strategic thinkingVarious case studies must be solved to enhance the problem solving skills.Approx. 3 monthsCase studies with solutions must be provided to the employees to help them learn in a better way.
Instant decision making skillsEmployees must be advised to study various books on decisions making. They must also be given practical knowledge in this regard.Approx. 2 monthsThe employee must be asked to report the books completed and feedback of their decisions.

(Mike, 2014)

Business awarenessIt comes with reading different magazines and reading news on the internet1 yearIt makes the employee more aware of the surrounding.
Good Communication skillsDifferent lecture and seminars must be conducted in the company on improving the communication skills,2 monthsIt helps the employees to build friendly relation with each other
Leadership skillsThis requires practical training of handling the team4 monthsIt helps in the achievement of the goal and objectives
TeamworkIt comes with participating in various games which requires working in a team2 weeksReading books with teach cooperation.

(Gallerily, 2015)

Guidance skillsIt comes by leading a team and facing real work situation.4 monthsIt improves the leadership skills.
Gathering knowledge and informationIt comes by reading books especially the autobiographies of the famous leaders all around the world.

Different documentaries on various leaders can be watched.

2 weeksIt helps by learning from the example of great leaders.
CONCLUSION

This assignment helped me in learning the practical implication of the leadership skills and the management skills. In this assignment we also made a personal and professional development plan. It makes us review the self-performance and self-development. This assignment also made us aware of the various skills. In the end we had a better understanding of the personal and professional skills.

REFERENCES

ACT Mindfully, (2015), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Training, [Online], Available: http://www.actmindfully.com.au/acceptance_&_commitment_therapy [Accessed 21 November 2015]

AFS, (2012), Single-Loop and Double-Loop Learning Model, [Blog], Available: http://www.afs.org/blog/icl/?p=2653 [Accessed 22 November 2015]

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This is a solution of Leadership and Management Assignment Help that describes about  Developing business.

INTRODUCTION

Leadership can be defined as leading and guiding the people and motivating them to work towards the objective of the organization. This assignment wants us to learn personal leadership and management which will help us achieve personal goals in life. In the first task the impact of objectives of the organizations are determine with the respect to leadership and management. It also briefs us about the different leadership skills which will help us achieve goal and objective of the company. A person should also make a personal development plan in order to access himself. The second task makes us familiar with the different opportunities for the personal development at work.  Personality development plan is also made.

Analyse the impact of organizational objectives, values and culture on the leadership and management role.

The objective of an organization can be defined as the results that an organization wishes to achieve in a long period of time. It covers all the aspects of the business. Some objectives are short term while some are long term.

Some of the business objectives are mentioned below:

  • Profit

Earning high profit is the major aim of any organization. The organization must ensure that the revenue earned is always greater than the investment.

  • High production

Productivity of a company includes training of the employees and maintenance of equipment. The company must be provided with all the resources in order to remain productive.

  • Customer care

Good customer service helps to keep the employees satisfied and happy. Customers are the major asset of the company.

  • Retention of employees

Employee satisfaction is also important as it increases the productivity of the company. Experienced employees are better at problem solving.

  • Core values

It is a set of beliefs and the values of the company. The company’s core value are the objectives of the company.

  • Fast growth

The growth of the company is determined by comparing the previous data of the company and predicting its future. (Norman, 2015)

  • Reducing finances

The production cost of the company must be reduced in order to maximize the profit. Accounts of the company must be properly made.

  • Marketing

It includes promoting the products and convincing the customer into buying it. it helps in increasing the ales of the product of the company. (Hofstede, 2015)

The impact of the objective of the organization, culture and values on the leadership are as follows:

  • It separates the functions of one department of organization from the other.
  • It provides identity to the different departments
  • It enhances the social values of the company. Culture of an organization is responsible for healthy and friendly atmosphere at the workplace.
  • The managers are responsible for making the employees work by motivating them. (Vitez, 2015)

1.2 Evaluate the leadership and management skills required to support the achievement of organizational objectives.

The major objective of any organization is to achieve all its objectives. The management skills that a leader must possess are as follows:

  • Good observation

A good leader must have a good observation skill. They should have the ability to judge things by just looking at them. The leader must observe employees, their habits, action and behavior. The behavior of the employees with the customer is observed very keenly. With the good observation skills a leader can remain up to date with all the proceedings of a workplace.

  • Performance monitoring

The performance of the employees is checked on a regular basis. The employees are given appraisals and rewards on the basis of their performance in the company. There is the assessment of their paperwork and evaluation of their personal and professional progress. (Tracy, 2011)

  • Professional development plan

It is the duty of the leader to identify the weakness of the employees. They also provides training and guidance to the employees in their weaker areas.

  • Knowledge and experience

A leader can instruct its employees only when he has a good knowledge of the subject and is well informed. Leader is the one whom employees seek in case of expert consultation. He should be precise and expert in his area. (Zenger and Folkman, 2014)

  • Decision making

Good leadership comes with the ability of taking good decisions. A leader must be clear with his decision and flexible in his approach. A good leader involves the employees in the process of decision making. He takes consent of all the employee before coming to the final decision.

  • Review and research

A good employee must review all the projects and processes going on in a company. A good leader must conduct the research of the market environment before starting a new project. The company must be ready for all the future challenges. (Geisler, 2012)

1.3 Assess personal leadership and management skills and identify personal development required to support achievement of organizational objectives.

An audit must be performed to access the leadership and the management skills. All the skills are given the rating on a scale of 5.

1= Excellent

2= Good

3= Average

4= Satisfactory

5= Not good

SKILLS 12345
1) Critical thinking
2) good communication
3) Influence on others
4) Ability to solve problem
5) Teamwork
6) Analytical thinking
7) Technical skills
8) Professional ability
9) Strategic formation
10) Ability to take decisions
11) target setting
12) goal setting
13) personal development
14) professional development
15) emotional attachment
16) guidance
17) organizing ability
18) motivational skills
19) leadership skills
20) delegation skills

For the personal and professional development of the employees certain skills are mandatory for the employees to learn over a period of time. For the success of a company it is very important that an employee has good technical skills as the technology is the major driving factor these days. Strategic and critical thinking is also required as it enhances the decision making ability of the employees. Setting of the goals and objectives beforehand is also essential for its completion on time. It is the duty of the leader to mentor and guide the employees in completing their targets.

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