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P1.4 Impact of legal and regulatory framework on Harrods human resource management

Taking care of the legal issues and policies is very important for company, especially when company is as big as Harrods which has its presence in many places. All these places have different legal policies as per the state rules. Another issue Harrods faced long time back was the copyright issues with other stores. It is the duty of the brand managers to take care of copyright issues and they may take help from the legal authorities to handle the issues.

The regulatory framework which is followed by the human resource department at Harrods mainly deals with the contracts with the employees. When human resource hires new employees, they sign a contract with the employees which mentions the probation period of 6 months. If the employees performance is not up to the standards, they might be fired based on the probation condition in the contract.

Another feature of the legal framework adopted by the human resource department at Harrods is taking care of the government policies regarding the wages of the employees, health of the employees and safety of the employees.

LO2 Understand how to recruit employees

P 2.1 Reasons for human resource planning at Harrods

Employees in any company is the key to success of the company and when it comes to the company like Harrods which has 45000 employees, human resource department is very much required. It is the human resource department who handles all the employees in the company and manages the task like recruiting the new talent, retaining the engaged employees, deal with the problems of the employees, taking care of the scheduling and rotation of the employees and handle the wages of the employees. Maintaining the employee relationships is also the responsibility of the HRM (MacDuffie, 1995, pp. 203).

Few years ago Harrods was facing the problem of Employee Turnover, which measure the rate at which employees of a particular company leaves the company in their first year of employment. This was the time when Harrods found out the need of a good human resource department. To resolve this problem, human resource department at Harrods conducted a survey of all the employees in the Harrods and found out the problems they were facing and recommended the management to take actions to resolve employees’ issues.

The reasons why human resource planning is necessary at Harrods could be summarized as below.

  1. Retaining the engaged employees
  2. Employee satisfaction
  3. Managing the employees’ training
  4. Getting in touch with line managers to get the requirement for the job
  5. Hiring the best talent in the market.
  6. Negotiating the salary with new employees
  7. Managing the awards and appraisals.
  8. Managing the discussion and forums to let the employees participate in decision making.

P 2.2 Stages that Harrods can adapt in planning human resource Requirements

Planning a human resource requirement is an incremental process, which start with the hiring the good HR managers. These managers should be highly qualified and should have the experience in the retail industry in the case of Harrods. For other companies which are in different fields, the requirement of experience is different. Human resource requirements are mostly provided by the line managers who provide the HR exact job description for which the position is vacant in their projects. Once these requirements are received, human resource would go through the following stages to complete the requirement.

  1. Searching the Company database for existing resumes
  2. Put the job requirement on different job portals
  3. Use the referral program
  4. Shortlisting of the resumes received through the job portal
  5. Conducting the telephonic interview on the primarily basis.
  6. Calling the candidates who seem satisfactory in telephonic conversations
  7. Arrange a panel of managers or subject matter experts to conduct the interviews.
  8. Negotiating the salary packages with selected candidates
  9. Once the candidate is on board HR has to make sure that he knows all the policies and processes followed in Harrods.
  10. Arrange a tour of the company’s different departments
  11. Completing the formalities like salary account openings and ID cards issuing.

P 2.3 Comparison in the recruitment and selection process at Harrods with another Business

Every company has different policies for recruitment which are based upon the organizational structure of the company and also the type of Requirement Company has at that time. In this part of the paper a comparison of the recruitment process at Harrods and Sainsbury will be covered. Harrods is completely dependent on its Human Resource Department which performs the recruitment process in the way that has been followed since the birth of Harrods. The different stages of the recruitment processes are explained in the last paragraph. Harrods’ human resource department also hires the employees which are referred by the existing employees of the company. Human resource conducts all the processes as they do for other candidates. Referral is not a guarantee of the selection and is not considered a factor when deciding which employee is fir for the requirement.

Sainsbury, on the other hand outsource the recruitment process to other companies or consultancies. By doing this Sainsbury reduces the efforts in recruitment and their human resource department could focus on other issues at hand. The consultancies hired by the Sainsbury selects the candidates on the basis of the requirements given to them by Sainsbury. They conduct the primary interview and the candidates who are selected by the consultancies, sent to Sainsbury for the final interview which is called managerial round or HR round.

P 2.4 Effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in the above two selected organizations

Both of the techniques explained above in Harrods and Sainsbury have their own pros and cons. Since both techniques are so much different than a point to point comparison is not possible and it is also difficult to compare their effectiveness. The technique adopted by Harrods seems to be more time taking and involving many resources of the human resource department which is definitely not good, but the advantage of this technique is that human resource is able to find the resources which match exactly the requirements given by line managers. At Harrods, line managers are included in the interview panel which makes it possible to hire the right talent. It may take more time and resources but finally this technique is very effective.

The technique applied by the Sainsbury depends upon the consultancies they hire fir the recruitment purpose. The biggest challenge in applying this technique is finding the right consultancy to outsource the requirement process. Since the interviewers in the consultancy might not be the subject matter expert, they might not be able to get the best talent in the market. The last interview in this process is held by the HR of the Sainsbury where only managerial questions are asked and negotiating on the salary is done. The line managers are completely absent in this process. This is the reason that this process may take less time and efforts, but may not be effective as the technique adopted by Harrods.

LO3 How to reward employees in order to motivate and retain them

P 3.1 Link between motivation theory and its reward with an application on Harrods Case study

There are many motivational theories explained by many authors and applying them is a very good idea to keep the employees motivated and cease the employee turnover. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs motivational theory is one the best theories which are adopted by the Harrods. According to the theory by Maslow, every person has its own needs and if these needs are not satisfied by the company, they could create a tension in the mind of the employee and he may not be able to perform his work duties efficiently. Maslow has divided his theory of hierarchy of needs into 6 levels and suggested that a need at higher level would only arise if the need at lower level is fulfilled. These levels are summarized below:

  1. Self-Actualization needs
  2. Participation in decision making
  3. Esteem needs
  4. Social needs
  5. Safety needs
  6. Physiological needs

Harrods has successfully implemented these six levels of needs and doing everything they could to satisfy the needs of the employees. At Harrods, Democratic leadership is followed which gives the employees a chance to be the part of the decision making. The advices from employees are taken into account and implemented in the policies of the company. People are assigned challenging and creative work, which satisfy their Actualization needs and promotion are given to the employees for good work which satisfy their esteem needs.

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P 3.4 Methods adopted by Harrods to monitor employee performance

Reaction Paper Assignment HelpThe performance of the employee is determined in the way which is explained in the above paragraphs. Other than this there are several activities which are used to evaluate the performance of the employee. One method is the daily status report, which employee submits to his reporting manager. This report contains all the duties performed by the employee on that particular day. The manager consolidates all these reports which come in very handy during the time of performance evaluation. Another performance measure is the initiative taken by the employee when a challenging task comes and other people do not want to take that up. If an employee takes initiative in this kind of condition, it really counts in his performance evaluation. Attendance and regularity of the employee is also considered in the Harrods Performance Evaluation (Gatewood, Feild & Barrick, 2010, pp. 97).

LO4 Mechanisms for the cessation of employment

P 4.1 Reasons for cessation of employment

Cessation of the employee is the prime responsibility of the human resource department in any company. Human Resource does everything possible to cease the current employees. The main points behind the importance are mentioned below:

  1. High cost of recruiting new employees
  2. Loss of expertise of the employee in a particular area he had been working
  3. Need for training the new employees hired

These three reasons are the key factor in reducing the turnover of the employees. If an employee leaves the company, human resource has to find a new resource for that job with the qualification required (Becker & Gerhart, 1996, pp. 94). The cost of recruitment has become very high these days, whether it is self-recruiting or outsourcing the recruitment. The next reason to cease the employee is that company has invested very much in the training of these employees and when an employee leaves the company, he also takes away his training and experience with him. Another reason for cessation of the employees is that human resource has to start the training of the new employees again from the scratch, which takes time and efforts.

P 4.2 employment exit procedures used by Harrods

As mentioned above that Harrods does everything possible to cease the employees but still they cannot stop the turnover of the employees completely. As the recruitment of the employees is the responsibility of the human resource department, so is the exit procedure of the employee. The procedure followed by the human resource could be divided into the following steps:

  1. Employee submits his resignation to his reporting manager.
  2. Manager arranges a meeting with the employee to know the reason of resign.
  3. Manager forwards the resignation to the human resource and human resource setup an exit interview with the employee.
  4. Human resource check the performance of the employee and if the performance is found good and worthy, HR meets with the employee and offers him some benefits to stay in the company.
  5. If the employee still wants to resign, HR asks him to complete the notice period as mentioned in the contract.
  6. If the employee does not want to serve the notice period, it is up to the HR that he may grant him the leave as soon as possible but may take the salary from the employees according to the notice period.
  7. HR instructs the IT department to close the email account of the employee and also instruct the admin department to collect the ID card and any other particulars which belongs to the company

P 4.3 impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation

Employment cessation is a very important part of the human resource department which also has the impacts on the legal and regulatory framework of the company. Since cessation or termination affects both of the parties i.e. the company and the employee, there are many legal laws which need to be followed by both. The first one is the labour law, which makes sure that employee is not ceased by the company by using any kind of force. The legal rights of the employee while working in the company are highlighted below:

  1. Right to safety and protection while working for the company
  2. Any kind of discrimination against the employee due to any reason is prohibited by the legal framework.
  3. Freedom of leaving the organization due to any personal unavoidable reason.

These three points form the basis of the legal and regularity framework for employee cessation, but companies are also given some liberty in the legal framework. For example, if the employee has signed a contract with the company in which notice period is mentioned, he has to complete that period or buyout that period according to the contract (Huselid, M. A. (1995, pp. 660).

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Conclusion

In this particular paper, Harrods Human Resource policies are studied deeply and various responsibilities of the human resource are explained. How to reduce the employee turnover and provide them a good environment is also explained. Recruitment and selection process at Harrods is also explained. The one thing which is most important for the company is cessation of the employees and it could be done by motivating the employees. Maslow’s theory of hierarchy needs fulfil this purpose and it has been analysed that Harrods is following the theory very well and able to satisfy the needs of the employees. Harrods has also adopted the survey of employees practice and in a recent survey around 91% employee of the Harrods said that they were proud of working at Harrods. The reason for this is the good human resource management at the Harrods along with the personal management of the employees. A comparison between the recruitment process of Harrods and Sainsbury is also discussed and found out that both companies use different approaches to recruit the new employees; where Harrods go for the new recruitment through their human resource department, Sainsbury outsources the process. The pros and cons of both approaches are explained in the paper.

References

Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of management journal, 38(3), 635-672.

Ulrich, D. (2013). Human resource champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Harvard Business Press.

Gatewood, R., Feild, H., & Barrick, M. (2010). Human resource selection. Cengage Learning.

Guest, D. E. (2011). Human resource management and performance: still searching for some answers. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1), 3-13.

Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 39(2), 366-391.

Arthur, J. B. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management journal, 37(3), 670-687.

Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2003). Strategy and human resource management.Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 57(1), 84.

Fombrun, C. J., Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1984). Strategic human resource management.

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Regent College Unit 21 Human Resource Management

Regent College Unit 21 Human Resource ManagementIntroduction

In the context of any big organization, human resource and personal development of the employees are the two sides of a coin. These two are related through different activities. In this paper we are going to explore these activities and also the different techniques of motivation. For the success of any organization it is very important that the staff they are recruiting fulfils the requirement of the position for which the recruitment is going on. Another aspect of good human resource is the retaining of the good employees who has the good knowledge of the concerned area and company has invested highly in their development (Kehoe & Wright, 2013, pp. 381).

On the other hand, human resource management includes that the process of hiring the employees and retaining them is following all kinds of legal and regularization techniques. As most of the managers have accepted that the employees they have are the most valuable resources for the company and retaining the good old staff has always been the priority in their job description.

LO1 Personnel management and human resource management

P 1.1 Harrods and Small Businesses

The terms personal management and human resource management have always been the cause of confusion to the managers in any company. Though if looked only at the outer side both of the terms mean same to the common people, but managers have to distinguish between them and use them appropriately. Personal Management is the term which is older than human resource management and used in managing the people in small companies. Human resource management has a wide area than personal management and deals with the overall performance of the company and strengthens the human resources in the company through various activities and also takes care of hiring the quality staff and reward schemes. In Harrods, Human Resource Management is the key department which has contributed a lot in the success of the company. Harrods is a 160 years old business and employs more than 4500 people (Boxall & Purcell, 2003, pp. 84). British; Luxury; Service; Innovation and Sensation are the five values of Harrods and it is the responsibility of the HRM department to engage the employees who could adhere to these values and work towards making these values better. On the other hand professional Development in the small companies is just limited to organize the current staff and hiring the staff as per the requirements given by the managers.

P 1.2 Function of Human Resource Management

As mentioned above the purpose of the human resource department is to take care of the five values of Harrods and to achieve that, human resource has to make sure that they have working people are qualified and productive in the company and also the staff they are hiring is according to the standards of Harrods. It is the job of the human resource that they keep the engaged people in the company because these kinds of people always go for the hard work and accept the challenges happily. Engaged people are the employees of the company who participate in the decision making process at the Harrods and these are the resources which are most important for the Harrods because they understands the responsibilities given to them by Harrods. Respecting these employees and developing more employees like these is the main function of the human resource at the Harrods. Other than these, there are three more activities which human resource follows at Harrods:

  • Recruitment and selection – Recruitment and selection of the best talent available in the market is the primary function of the human resource at Harrods. The requirements are given by the developing manager for managing human resource and finds the talents which fulfill conditions.
  • Performance – Keeping an eye on the performance of the employees is another function of the human resource. Enabling the employees who are not able to perform their duties effectively is managed by the human resource department. Human resource provides these employees training opportunities which help these employees in doing their job perfectly (Becker & Gerhart, 1996, pp. 780).
  • Development – Development of the employees in Harrods is also the responsibilities of the human resource department. To persuade the engaged employees in building their long term relations with Harrods and help them in the process is the one thing which human resource is doing perfectly at Harrods. Human resource provides the career progressive opportunities to the employees in the company.

P 1.3 Roles and responsibilities of line managers

Line Managers at Harrods work as a mentor to the staff and to new employees in the company. They are like the coaches who train the people and also listen to their problems. They are also the advisors and guides to the employees in the company who might not have the knowledge as the line managers and it is the duty of the line managers to fulfil that gap. These activities also help the line managers in developing the managerial skills, leadership skills, communication skills, forming a bond with the employees in the company and also enforcing the trust among the employees at Harrods. Sometimes line managers might not be agree with the decisions of the human resource department and they help the human resource in understanding people and also suggest the different options which could be very helpful to human resource department. In the recent days, a new phenomenon has been developed in the business which is outsourcing the work to other companies and countries (Delaney & Huselid, 1996, pp. 981). It is also the responsibility of the line managers to handle the outsourced work and make these companies deliver the quality work. To do this sometimes line managers have to learn foreign languages which are an extra burden on them. Line managers also take part in the strategic execution of the policies of the company. Line managers also handle the personal management and employees relation programs.

P 3.2 The process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay

Regent College Unit 21 Human Resource ManagementAt Harrods, pay determination is purely based upon the performance of the employees. These performance are measured not only in the work assigned to them bus also the initiative taken by the employees to make Harrods a better place to work (Ulrich, 2013, pp. 376). The job evaluation at Harrods is multilevel process which makes it perfect for determining the pay. In this process, first of all the employee is asked to submit a self-evaluation form, which is forwarded to the team lead. Team lead mentions his comments on the assessment done by the employee and may add some comments also. Once the team lead is done with the evaluation, form reaches to the line manager which discusses the points mentioned in the form with HR of the company. In this discussion the performance of the employee is evaluated on the basis of the comments given by the team lead. Employee self-assessment is also considered in this matter. Once the evaluation is done and pay is decided, HR calls up the employee for the pay discussion and listens to the employee. If the employee is not happy with the pay HR may take a final decision on the pay and increase it to an extent if convinced by the arguments of the employee.

P 3.3 Effectiveness of reward systems

The rewards system in an organization has always been the topic of interest for the employees. But the effectiveness of the reward system depends upon what is being rewarded and who is being reward. Sometimes a person whose performance is not very good but he is rewarded due to some reasons could affect the effectiveness of the reward system. Another issue is what is being rewarded. If a reward is provided to the employee but he has no use of that reward, the effectiveness of the reward system is affected.

Rewards play an important role in the motivation of the employees. It is not necessary that these rewards are always monetary, but anything which makes people happy is considered a good reward. At Harrods the reward system comes under the human resource department. Human resource department evaluate all the employees in the above mentioned manner and reward the people who are at the top of the performance list.

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Unit 18 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

Task 3.3

Unit 18 Understand Specific Needs AssignmentThere has been a series of developments and emerging technologies which have come to rescue and help for the support of servicing the specific needs of patients like Mr. Luke Dobson. Some of the benefits of the emerging developments are stated as –

  • The more effective and efficient implementation of the standard operating procedures along with the specific treatments has increase the quality of the overall service
  • The patients can be treated at any place according to their convenience now.
  • remote testing and diagnosis with treatment is possible now
  • treatment times are reduced
  • Clinicians are now being enabled to treat more patients more effectively (Wanless, 2002).

There are a number of types of disabilities from which a number of patients are suffering. The recent developments in medicine and technology is making the healthcare professionals to treat the people with any kind of disability in a more efficient and effective way (Leonard, 2000). The advancement in the sector of medicines and technologies is heavily dependent on the attitude of the society along with the cultural background of the society. In recent times, the number of children treated for disability by the usage of the advanced medicines and technologies has increased a lot (Woolf, 2007). The people going through the condition of disability are effectively treated because of the advancements in the technologies and the medicines.

Generally there is low awareness regarding the advanced medicines and technologies available in the healthcare sector in the society. Along with the awareness another issues persists in the sector of healthcare, which is the cost of the advanced technologies and medicines. Most of the ordinary patients are unable to avail any of these technologies or medicines for their disability. Some of the technologies such as speech therapy and assistive technology are currently allowing a number of patients who are physically disabled to perform regularly without any issues (Walker, 2003).

The advancements in the healthcare sector can be defined as technological advancements in all the modules (Fleisher, 1998). This again can be defined as the advancements in the medicines prepared for a number of diseases, the delivery procedure of the drugs, the advancements of the equipment and the advancements of the method of the treatment done for the patients requiring special care. All of these developments allows the healthcare professionals to treat the patients who need special care in a better and more effective way. This again increases the chances of quick recovery of the patient and the overall result of the treatment (Lundberg & Alexanderson, 2007).

Some of the main areas of technological advancements and emerging developments for catering to support of servicing specific needs are as follows –

  • The procedure of surgery involving the usage of robotics
  • Advancements in the molecular genetics concept
  • Development in surgery processes which are done in minimum access and in a super specialised way
  • Developments in the concept of biotechnology
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Task 4.1

The term “challenging behaviour” defines the behaviour which is very intense. Such a behaviour for a long duration and frequency damages the security of the healthcare service workplace along with the physical safety of all personal and professional along with the patient(Emerson, 1995). Such a behaviour causes the patient to be restricted from a number of facilities.

Challenging behaviour of an individual can be because of various following aspects, such as –

  • Mental retardation
  • Learning disabilities
  • Emotional turmoil
  • Permanent Physical Disabilities
  • Neurotic and Psychotropic abnormalities
  • Neurotic and Psychotropic medication regimes
  • Emotional discontent and lack of verbal communication
  • Inability and frustration

Some of the aims of challenging behaviour showing patients –

  • Self-stimulation
  • Gaining the attention of others
  • Avoidance

Some of the traits or symptoms of challenging behaviours –

  • Unexplainable and sudden rage and aggression
  • Risks to properties and technological equipment
  • Non-compliance to the general guidelines
  • Injuring self by a number of irregular behaviours and activities (Starfield, 1998)
  • Non-adherence to medication regimes and not responding to treatments by avoiding dosages etc.
  • Attacking or aggression towards support staff
  • Indecent behaviour including showing personal parts etc. towards fellow stakeholders

Task 4.2

Some of the main impacts of challenging behaviouron health and social care organizations are as follows –

  • Fear of physical aggression and attack on the support staff by the patients
  • Lack of communication and verbal speech leading to frustration in support staff
  • Frustration and irritation in nursing care due to work environment may lead to inefficient service delivery
  • Non adherence of medical staff to medication and other routines
  • Hindered training and coaching assistance being delivered
  • Impatience may lead to high turnover in staff
  • Retaliation feelings may crop in physic of the staff against any previous or past incident
  • Malpractices
  • Unethical behaviour shown by support staff

Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –

  • In this case, despite of many hindrances to work and challenging environment of work, support staff behaviour of the health and social care homes was pretty helpful and appeasing
  • Constant vigil and support provided to patients like Mr. Luke
  • Assistance provided even in the far off hospital, when he was admitted for stroke reasons
  • Multidisciplinary approach and assistance to therapy regimes even when Mr. Dobson was not in the service home and was admitted to the hospital
  • Inclusion of family members in every health and care future plans for Mr. Luke Dobson
  • Taking help from community services and including them for better treatment when he was admitted in the hospital

Task 4.3

Unit 18 Understand Specific Needs AssignmentThere are a number of strategies and techniques which are used by the healthcare professionals to handle the wide number of traits of challenging behaviours shown by the patients. Some of the patients requiring special needs like Mr. Luke Dobson generally show this kind of behaviour. One of the most important strategy to handle such behaviours is to identify and anticipate the early symptoms of such behaviours and preventing them before such challenging behaviour starts (Rosenstock, 1988). The most important prerequisite to handle challenging behaviour is to understand and analyse the core reason behind such behaviour of the patient.

Some of the various other straightforward strategies for working with people with challenging behaviours and patients like Mr. Luke Dobson ca be –

Unit 18 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

  • The implementation of the active coping skills should be successful for all the members of the healthcare service provider.
  • The guidelines to remove a patient with special needs from treatment when he or she is showing challenging behaviour should be clear. The clear guidelines helps the professionals to take efficient and effective decisions to decide about the perfect course of action.
  • Temporary removal of a patient showing challenging behaviour from the treatment allows the healthcare professionals to change the experience and environment of the patient which in turn allows the change in the behaviour of the patient.
  • The location after the removal from the treatment should satisfy and provide all the special needs required by the patient, which in turn leads to the elimination of challenging behaviour (Leonard, 2000).
  • Extra rewards and recognition can be provided to the professionals with better performance in controlling the challenging behaviour of the patients along with the patients.
  • Rewards provided to the patients motivates them to achieve greater goals and control their challenging behaviour. This motivation helps the healthcare professionals to manage the challenging behaviour of the patients.
  • The penalties imposed on the patients for negative behaviour in a certain way allows the patients to be cautious not to exhibit any challenging behaviour

Conclusion

Persons with disabilities or patients with difficulties and illnesses require special care and have specific needs to be taken care of. With limitations to keep them at home, family members and relatives take specialized helps from health and social care services. Special service homes for patients with learning disabilities and hardships legalized and assisted by legislative frameworks. Challenging behaviour shown by these patients adhere to socially un-acceptable activities and actions. Special strategies are being deployed to mitigate these behaviours in patients with specific needs and also to safely ward off and administer treatment to them at service homes by the support staff. Multidisciplinary approach has been formulated and implemented in treating such patients. Social stigma and taboo with overall mind-set has changed over the period and acceptability towards such persons has been raised, with guarantee from governments and laws.

In Mr. Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from epilepsy and learning disorders and was happily living in a service home, but due to sudden illness and deterioration in his health, he was shifted to a hospital, where multidisciplinary treatment was administered. But, due to some miscommunication and indecisiveness, he lost his lives. To avoid such incidents in totality in future, medical technology advancements have come to help. With latest emerging technologies to assist medical fraternity, such incidents in future can be obverted.

References

Chevannes, M. 2002. Social construction of the managerialism of needs assessment by health and social care professionals.Health & social care in the community, 10(3), 168-178.

Curtis, L. 2012. Unit costs of health and social care 2012. Personal Social Services Research Unit.

DiMattteo& Martin, Health Psychology, 2002

Emerson, E. 1995 Challenging Behaviour.Analysis and Intervention in People with Learning Difficulties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fleisher, L. A., Mantha, S., &Roizen, M. F. 1998. Medical technology assessment: an overview. Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 87(6), 1271-82.Order Now

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Unit 17 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

Task 2.1

Unit 17 Understand Specific Needs AssignmentAs mentioned earlier, there are a number of specific special needs each of the patient with some specific illness requires. Some of these illnesses are chronic diseases, disability etc. The healthcare and social service providers ensure that all the specific needs of these patients are satisfied. All of these specific needs are included under the procedure of special care provided to the patients in the smooth operation procedure followed by the service providers.Mr. Luke Dobson needs some of such special care as mentioned below.

  • The culture of the healthcare and social service has to be changed to define the service to have the objective of enhancing the patient’s life
  • Learning and understanding needs to be fulfilled by specially designed training courses and modules
  • All of the healthcare and social service has to be implemented based on efficient and effective design and framework
  • Speech and behavioural therapies
  • Medication regimes with strict adherence
  • Public and social manner and etiquette trainings
  • Capability and efficiency enhancement modules
  • Friends and acquaintance building communication exercises
  • All the communication techniques used in the healthcare service should be improved
  • All the services should be divided efficiently among proper teams
  • The patient should have a good and positive experience(DiMattteo& Martin, 2002)
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Task 2.2

As mentioned earlier, a number of patients require a number of specific care which can be defined as special care. All of these special care is provided to these patients through the efficient and effective implementation of proper frameworks and smooth operation procedures. There are a number of legislations which ensure that the smooth operation procedures is followed by the healthcare professionals while providing such special care. Some of the healthcare and social services provides are including a number of reward programs in their services. These rewards and recognition programs are focused on both the patients and the people providing the services.

There are a number of roles which are responsible for the effective and efficient delivery of the special care to such patients. Some of these roles are the family of the patient, friends of the patient, doctors, government and last but not the least the patient himself or herself.

Ecosystem as a big picture:

Unit 17 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

The various roles are described in this section.

Consultants:

  • The consultants are basically the doctors with expertise in a particular field in healthcare (Curtis, 2012).
  • They are responsible for identifying the diseases and the cause from the symptoms according to their speciality.
  • They are also responsible for documenting the diagnosis tests done in their field of expertise.
  • They are responsible for treating patients within their field of expertise. So they have to more focused on identifying and treating the disease.
  • They are also responsible for providing the patients with the special care according to their requirement.

Doctors:

  • Unlike the consultants, the doctors treat patients for the generic diseases.
  • They serve as the first point of contact or first point of service for the patients.
  • They are responsible for identifying and analysing the symptoms present in the patient’s body.
  • They are responsible for prescribing the generic medications and referring to the consultants according to the severity of the condition of the patient.

Support staff:

  • They provide the doctors and consultants with all types of supports from their end.
  • They ensure the cooperation of the patients.
  • They ensure the successful completion of all the tests.

Others:

  • All the family members and friends of the patient are responsible for cooperating with the service providers and encouraging the patient.
  • The family members should also help the supporting staff with the special needs required by the patients.
  • The implementation of the effective and efficient frameworks and procedures to ensure successful completion of all the activities in the healthcare services.

Task 2.3

Facilities available for Mr. Luke Dobson at Service home –

  • Dedicated full time nurse and other support staff
  • Full trained and NVQ level 3 qualified support staff
  • Various specific care mentioned above being taken care of
  • Proper medication and timely adherence regime
  • Various training, learning modules and exercises being implemented
  • Socially acceptable and compliant behaviour being imparted
  • Capability enhancement
  • Making patient content and happy

Facilities available for Mr. Luke Dobson at the general ward of the Hospital –

  • Multidisciplinary team of doctors, nurses, support staff and physiotherapists
  • Allowance of his service home support staff to visit and assist in therapy
  • Multipronged approach for disease prognosis
  • Visits by specialist and trained nurses and other staffs from community services

Task 3.1

There are a number of techniques which are used to ensure the successful delivery of the special needs required by some specific patients.

  • The generic doctors and the consultants i.e. the specialised doctors should provide palliative care to the patients who require certain special needs.
  • The patients or the healthcare service providers who need some special care should be helped by the support staff and the doctors for a number of physical activities.
  • Difficulty to communicate with other people is the biggest of the challenges faced by patients like Mr. Luke Dobson, communication exercises and modules for increasing his efficiency has to be implemented
  • Speech therapies and expression exercises help them with ability to speak up and express their feelings and desires in a proper and effective manner
  • Inclusion of family and other specialist therapists for increased involvement and adherence by patient by making him feel comfortable
  • The involvement of the family members and friends to ensure the constant engagement of the patients in various exercises and physical activities.

Some of the prior requirements are

  • Proper implementation and usage of the communication techniques used to interact with the patients.
  • Effective implementation of the complaints and escalation services.
  • Effective implementation of various guidelines to be followed in the healthcare service activities.
  • Proper implementation of the training frameworks
  • Proper maintenance of the workplace for the healthcare service professionals.
  • Proper implementation of the standard operating procedures in the healthcare services facilities.

Some of the advantages that the patients experience are

  • Effective motivation for the daily activities
  • Efficient communication and interaction with the healthcare service professionals
  • Better understanding of the standard operating procedures followed in the standard operating procedures.

Task 3.2

Unit 17 Understand Specific Needs AssignmentEffectiveness of the various intervention techniques being involved could have been gauged by the following symptoms or outcomes –

  • Change in Mr. Luke’s behaviour and emotional outcomes
  • Happiness and content attitude developed
  • Enhancement of capabilities and learning abilities
  • Making friends and acquaintances
  • Proper medication regime being adhered
  • Peaceful and cohabitation for last ten years in the service home
  • Coordinating and facilitating with support staff at the service home (Marinker, 1998)

Task 3.3

There has been a series of developments and emerging technologies which have come to rescue and help for the support of servicing the specific needs of patients like Mr. Luke Dobson. Some of the benefits of the emerging developments are stated as –

  • The more effective and efficient implementation of the standard operating procedures along with the specific treatments has increase the quality of the overall service
  • The patients can be treated at any place according to their convenience now.
  • remote testing and diagnosis with treatment is possible now
  • treatment times are reduced
  • Clinicians are now being enabled to treat more patients more effectively (Wanless, 2002).

There are a number of types of disabilities from which a number of patients are suffering. The recent developments in medicine and technology is making the healthcare professionals to treat the people with any kind of disability in a more efficient and effective way (Leonard, 2000). The advancement in the sector of medicines and technologies is heavily dependent on the attitude of the society along with the cultural background of the society. In recent times, the number of children treated for disability by the usage of the advanced medicines and technologies has increased a lot (Woolf, 2007). The people going through the condition of disability are effectively treated because of the advancements in the technologies and the medicines.

Generally there is low awareness regarding the advanced medicines and technologies available in the healthcare sector in the society. Along with the awareness another issues persists in the sector of healthcare, which is the cost of the advanced technologies and medicines. Most of the ordinary patients are unable to avail any of these technologies or medicines for their disability. Some of the technologies such as speech therapy and assistive technology are currently allowing a number of patients who are physically disabled to perform regularly without any issues (Walker, 2003).

The advancements in the healthcare sector can be defined as technological advancements in all the modules (Fleisher, 1998). This again can be defined as the advancements in the medicines prepared for a number of diseases, the delivery procedure of the drugs, the advancements of the equipment and the advancements of the method of the treatment done for the patients requiring special care. All of these developments allows the healthcare professionals to treat the patients who need special care in a better and more effective way. This again increases the chances of quick recovery of the patient and the overall result of the treatment (Lundberg & Alexanderson, 2007).

Some of the main areas of technological advancements and emerging developments for catering to support of servicing specific needs are as follows –

  • The procedure of surgery involving the usage of robotics
  • Advancements in the molecular genetics concept
  • Development in surgery processes which are done in minimum access and in a super specialised way
  • Developments in the concept of biotechnology
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Task 4.1

The term “challenging behaviour” defines the behaviour which is very intense. Such a behaviour for a long duration and frequency damages the security of the healthcare service workplace along with the physical safety of all personal and professional along with the patient(Emerson, 1995). Such a behaviour causes the patient to be restricted from a number of facilities.

Challenging behaviour of an individual can be because of various following aspects, such as –

  • Mental retardation
  • Learning disabilities
  • Emotional turmoil
  • Permanent Physical Disabilities
  • Neurotic and Psychotropic abnormalities
  • Neurotic and Psychotropic medication regimes
  • Emotional discontent and lack of verbal communication
  • Inability and frustration

Some of the aims of challenging behaviour showing patients –

  • Self-stimulation
  • Gaining the attention of others
  • Avoidance

Some of the traits or symptoms of challenging behaviours –

  • Unexplainable and sudden rage and aggression
  • Risks to properties and technological equipment
  • Non-compliance to the general guidelines
  • Injuring self by a number of irregular behaviours and activities (Starfield, 1998)
  • Non-adherence to medication regimes and not responding to treatments by avoiding dosages etc.
  • Attacking or aggression towards support staff
  • Indecent behaviour including showing personal parts etc. towards fellow stakeholders

Task 4.2

Some of the main impacts of challenging behaviouron health and social care organizations are as follows –

  • Fear of physical aggression and attack on the support staff by the patients
  • Lack of communication and verbal speech leading to frustration in support staff
  • Frustration and irritation in nursing care due to work environment may lead to inefficient service delivery
  • Non adherence of medical staff to medication and other routines
  • Hindered training and coaching assistance being delivered
  • Impatience may lead to high turnover in staff
  • Retaliation feelings may crop in physic of the staff against any previous or past incident
  • Malpractices
  • Unethical behaviour shown by support staff

Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –

  • In this case, despite of many hindrances to work and challenging environment of work, support staff behaviour of the health and social care homes was pretty helpful and appeasing
  • Constant vigil and support provided to patients like Mr. Luke
  • Assistance provided even in the far off hospital, when he was admitted for stroke reasons
  • Multidisciplinary approach and assistance to therapy regimes even when Mr. Dobson was not in the service home and was admitted to the hospital
  • Inclusion of family members in every health and care future plans for Mr. Luke Dobson
  • Taking help from community services and including them for better treatment when he was admitted in the hospital

Task 4.3

There are a number of strategies and techniques which are used by the healthcare professionals to handle the wide number of traits of challenging behaviours shown by the patients. Some of the patients requiring special needs like Mr. Luke Dobson generally show this kind of behaviour. One of the most important strategy to handle such behaviours is to identify and anticipate the early symptoms of such behaviours and preventing them before such challenging behaviour starts (Rosenstock, 1988). The most important prerequisite to handle challenging behaviour is to understand and analyse the core reason behind such behaviour of the patient.

Some of the various other straightforward strategies for working with people with challenging behaviours and patients like Mr. Luke Dobson ca be –

Unit 17 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

  • The implementation of the active coping skills should be successful for all the members of the healthcare service provider.
  • The guidelines to remove a patient with special needs from treatment when he or she is showing challenging behaviour should be clear. The clear guidelines helps the professionals to take efficient and effective decisions to decide about the perfect course of action.
  • Temporary removal of a patient showing challenging behaviour from the treatment allows the healthcare professionals to change the experience and environment of the patient which in turn allows the change in the behaviour of the patient.
  • The location after the removal from the treatment should satisfy and provide all the special needs required by the patient, which in turn leads to the elimination of challenging behaviour (Leonard, 2000).
  • Extra rewards and recognition can be provided to the professionals with better performance in controlling the challenging behaviour of the patients along with the patients.
  • Rewards provided to the patients motivates them to achieve greater goals and control their challenging behaviour. This motivation helps the healthcare professionals to manage the challenging behaviour of the patients.
  • The penalties imposed on the patients for negative behaviour in a certain way allows the patients to be cautious not to exhibit any challenging behaviour

Conclusion

Persons with disabilities or patients with difficulties and illnesses require special care and have specific needs to be taken care of. With limitations to keep them at home, family members and relatives take specialized helps from health and social care services. Special service homes for patients with learning disabilities and hardships legalized and assisted by legislative frameworks. Challenging behaviour shown by these patients adhere to socially un-acceptable activities and actions. Special strategies are being deployed to mitigate these behaviours in patients with specific needs and also to safely ward off and administer treatment to them at service homes by the support staff. Multidisciplinary approach has been formulated and implemented in treating such patients. Social stigma and taboo with overall mind-set has changed over the period and acceptability towards such persons has been raised, with guarantee from governments and laws.

In Mr. Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from epilepsy and learning disorders and was happily living in a service home, but due to sudden illness and deterioration in his health, he was shifted to a hospital, where multidisciplinary treatment was administered. But, due to some miscommunication and indecisiveness, he lost his lives. To avoid such incidents in totality in future, medical technology advancements have come to help. With latest emerging technologies to assist medical fraternity, such incidents in future can be obverted.

References

Chevannes, M. 2002. Social construction of the managerialism of needs assessment by health and social care professionals.Health & social care in the community, 10(3), 168-178.

Curtis, L. 2012. Unit costs of health and social care 2012. Personal Social Services Research Unit.

DiMattteo& Martin, Health Psychology, 2002

Emerson, E. 1995 Challenging Behaviour.Analysis and Intervention in People with Learning Difficulties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fleisher, L. A., Mantha, S., &Roizen, M. F. 1998. Medical technology assessment: an overview. Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 87(6), 1271-82.Order Now

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Unit 16 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

Unit Description

This Understand Specific Needs Assignment describes about health and social care concepts and services.

Task 1.1

Different Concepts related to Health –

Health – This is wellbeing or natural state of a human being or the tuned up state of an individual’s body. It is also considered as functional or metabolic efficiency of an individual human being. According to Ayurveda from India, it is the harmonious state between mind, body, soul and external environment.

The term “healthcare” is a combination of two words, “health” and “care”. The term “health” refers to the physical and mental condition of an individual. In the same context, the term “care” defines the processes in which the physical and mental condition of an individual is constantly monitored and analysed to ensure the individual to be the best condition. The combination of both of these terms generates the term “healthcare” which basically defines all the processes and procedures used by the professionals to take care of the health of the individuals. Each and every country in the world has a number of dedicated healthcare service providers who are responsible for providing a wide range and types of healthcare services to the citizens of that country. Generally the healthcare service providers are also concerned about the health and social care services also. The social care services provided to an individual basically consists of a number of activities which ensures the fulfilment of all the basic social needs of the individual. These basic social needs include food, shelter, rights, clothes etc. There are a large number of service providers in the world who provide both healthcare and social services in a combined way (Helman, 1990).

The term “illness” generally defines a state of an individual in which he or she is not feeling the same as per usual conditions. The condition of illness defines the deteriorated physical and mental condition of the individual which causes him or her to feel bad, weak and perform less.

The term “symptoms” defines the hints or the conditions which allows others to understand and observe the illness of an individual. These are small actions or events which confirms the state of illness of an individual. There are a wide range of illnesses in the world and some of them have similar set of symptoms. Some of the other symptoms are not so common and defines the presence of specific illnesses.

The term “disability” defines an individual’s inability to perform certain basic and regular actions. This term defines the condition of an individual in which he or she is unable to perform some of the basic actions or events. This is generally caused by any limb not working properly (Kleinmann, 1988).

Behaviour – Behaviour is said to be a set of activities, actions or mannerisms performed by any individual human being in any context or settings. Behavioural activities are generally biased actions based on social, cultural, ethical, emotional, values and personal traits factors. They generally fall in two major categories of acceptable and non-acceptable based on these factors only, which give birth to any specific behaviour.

The services of healthcare includes a number of activities such as understanding the emotions of the patients, understanding the needs of the patients, preventing diseases, increasing awareness regarding a number of deadly diseases etc. All of these activities increases the effectiveness of the healthcare activities and services, which in turn leads to the increase in the physical and mental condition of the patients (WHO, 2007).

Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – In Luke Dobson’s case, he was suffering from childhood disability of learning, which was the resultant of his genetic disorder Epilepsy (illness). Mr. Luke’s overall health was normal and pretty tuned up. Though faced with difficulties to communicate and learn, it was pretty time taking for him to get socially acclimatize and make acquaintances. Assisted with series of health service carers, Mr. Dobson was doing fine with new learning abilities like sign languages and making friends etc. His behavioural environment was just quite perfect, with him being content and happy and being totally cared for (WHO, 2004).

Unit 16 Understand Specific Needs Assignment

Task 1.2

The patients receiving health and social care services have a certain types of needs which are generally generated through the conditions of illness. This in turn requires the health and social care professionals to understand these specific needs so that they can satisfy these needs of the patients. The fulfilment of these specific needs of the patients allows the health and social care professionals to understand, observe and analyse the condition of the patients in a better way. This leads to the increase in the effectiveness of the patients. All the health and social care services maintain the patients at the centre or core of the service which allows the professionals to focus on them (Pennebaker, 1981).

Perceptions are the general preview or mind-set anticipation of an individual or a group of human beings against or for an event, person, status or activity/process/procedure.

Perceptions about an individual’s health and illness have been since time immemorial being dependant on the social, cultural, emotional and value based in almost all the geographies of the world.

To understand it in little detail, we can break down the general perception build-up and changeover of the society at large across the globe in time-zones and dependant on factors mentioned above.

Early History – Disability or a certain type of inherent illness were seen in different connotations like being possessed by evil spirits to being punished by gods to being bearing the brunt of one’s own fate to being not healthy and socially outcasts. Disable or people with specific needs were not treated equally and were subjected to many discriminations across countries. Some of the economies were comparatively more sensitive to identify their specific needs and include them in mainstream society.

Middle-ages to pre-modernity – This was the time of scientific and technological advancements and hence medical science being upgraded and updated at a magnificent pace. Causes, reasons and cures of many disabilities and illness were discovered and propagated. Conditions improved comparatively and hence the perceptions and sensitivity towards specific needs and patients with disability.

Modernity and 21st century – This is the age of inclusion and advancement of cutting edge technology and knowledge enhancement. Almost all known human ailments, disabilities and illnesses are discovered with their root causes and their cures. Social, cultural and legislative norms in almost all the countries have evolved and matured their overall models for inclusion of persons with specific needs to mainstream society. Sensitivity and perception has changed and behavioural change pattern has emerged (Wright, 1960).

Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case – Patients with genetically sworn diseases or disabilities like epilepsy have been accepted as persons with specific needs, their learning and other handicaps are being realized and accepted. To address the issues, the legislation and statutory framework of governments in various economies have setup provisions for facilities like service homes, education and learning facilities for patients with specific needs etc. similarly like the one where Mr. Luke Dobson was lodged with utmost care of qualified staff (NVQ level 3 qualified) since last 10 years (Wright, 1973).

Task 1.3

Mr. Luke Dobson’s Case –

The cultural background of an individual generally defines the key behavioural traits of the individual. The cultural background of an individual defines the beliefs, perceptions and habits of the individual. All of these factors of an individual character also affects the health and social care services.Patients like Mr. Luke Dobson with learning disabilities which are part of their epilepsy syndrome are treated with extra care. Health Service Care homes are quite prevalent in many countries for talking care of these patients. They are no longer considered to be any taboo or stigmatized, rather the root cause problem is addressed and alternative course of measures are taken.

There are a number of social factors which are also responsible in the changes in the health and social care services. Some of these social factors are the occupation, economical status, social status, religion, race, background etc.In Luke Dobson’s case, he had been admitted in Service Home and was taken care by a series of well qualified care takers. These kinds of arrangements have been socially accepted norms where patients can no longer be taken care at their respective homes and are shifted and taken care at specialized living areas.

There are a number of legislations and frameworks established in each of the countries to focus on the health and social condition of all the people living in the country. All of these legislations and frameworks have a common objective of strengthening the health and social status of the citizens of the country. The legislations and frameworks are responsible for managing the activities of the health and social care service providers working in the country, setting the procedures to raise concerns and complaints regarding the health and social care services, providing all the stakeholders along with the patients with minimum rights etc.

Some example of models and frameworks for regularizing specific need cares are –

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Unit 33 : Quality Management in Business

Task 3: Quality control and service improvement

Assess role of communication and the various communication methods that related to your organization.

Various standards

  • Quality system introduced in 1987 by International Organization for Standardization in Geneva (Reid, 2001).
  • Revised in 1987 and 2000
  • Ensuring that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose.
  • Technical specifications to be used as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics
  • To improve the quality of the product
  • Quality of operations needs to be improved continuously to meet needs of customers and stakeholders.
  • Develop confidence among various stakeholders like management, employees, clients, and shareholders and motivate them to fulfil the quality requirements

ISO 9000: Standards

  • ISO 9000:2000, Quality Management Systems – Fundamentals and Vocabulary
  • ISO 9001:2000, Quality Management Systems – Requirements
  • ISO 9004:2000, Quality Management Systems – Guidelines for Performance Improvement

Structure of ISO standards

Five major sections:

  • Requirements of the system – Establish a document for the quality management system.
  • Management Responsibility – Management Commitment, Client Focus, Planning, Administration, Management Review.
  • Management of the Resources – Provision of Resources, Work Environment, Human Resources (Wu, 2004).
  • Product Realization – Realization Processes planning, Processes related to clients, Purchasing, Planning & Development, Control of Measuring/ Monitoring Devices and Service & Production Operations
  • Data Measurement – Planning, Control of Nonconformity and Improvement
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ISO 9000 characteristics

  • Leadership enables fulfilling customer requirements.
  • Quality objectives are needed to be set and planned.
  • Identification of process
  • Management of process
  • Analysis of the process.
  • Measuring satisfaction of the customers
  • Analyze the data
  • Collection of data
  • Usage of data.
  • Effectiveness of the system to be improved regularly.

Unit 33 : Quality Management in Business

Timeline for development of ISO standards

The benefits of ISO certifications:

  • Quality management system documentation
  • Variation Reduction
  • Helps in developing and expanding business
  • Customer audit needs to be reduced and eliminated.
  • Increased profitability
  • Cost reduction

Problems of certification

  • Application cost
  • Maintenance cost
  • Time of the application
  • Maintenance time
  • Internal expertise
  • Executive commitment
  • Registration selection process

 

Task 4: Quality management and organizational performance

(a) Examine the principles of quality management

Principles of QM

  • It follows the long term future success approach through customer satisfaction.
  • It involves the participation of employees of an organisation in improving the process, the product and the culture
  • It achieves ‘QM’ throughout the organisation rather than for a product only
  • Continuous training for the improvement in the product
  • Understanding the current processes before beginning the improvement
  • Product quality is the business of everyone
  • Statistical approach for the product development
  • Resource and Information sharing
  • Communication barriers need to be eliminated

(b) Identify and discuss the quality systems and processes and how they impact on the overall performance of your chosen organization.

Impact of Quality management on the success of Apple Inc.

Apple’s main production partner is Foxconn. The senior executive at Apple had told Foxconn to strictly follow quality assurances to ensure that problem was not found in other iPhone5s units. This quality assurance technique does not pass through the production process. The desirable result will increase the metal bands. However the manufacturing cost of these phones will be more .This results in the slowing down of delivery to the consumers.

iPhone 5 devices are being made in the Foxconn factory in Zhengzhou, where the strict measures for quality control were followed that result in a strike by workers. Foxconn employees work on a National public holiday.

Quality control is an important aspect for Apple Company. The poor quality assurance will result in dramatic effects upon company’s reputation.

  • Vision of the Apple Company

According to the company’s website, the vision of the Apple Company is that Apple is

Committed to provide the best personal computing knowledge to clients and

Professionals all around the world with the help of its software and hardware offerings.

  • Mission of the Apple Company

Unit 33 : Quality Management in BusinessAccording to the company’s website, the mission of the Apple Company is that it is the only company who designs the best personal computers in the world, which has features of OS X and professional software. Apple brings revolution in the digital music market by introducing iPods all around the world. Apple has introduced its revolutionary iPhone which has App Store, and iTunes. Apple iPhone is the mobile media future and iPad is the future of computing devices.

  • Values of Apple, Inc.’s

According to the company’s website, the values of the Apple Company are that

  • Believe in making simple but not complex products
  • Believe in controlling the technologies that are used for designing the product
  • Participation in markets to make a significant contribution
  • Believe in rejecting thousands of projects to make them really focus on the important products
  • Believe in collaboration of our groups, which allow us to bring innovation in the market

Reflective review

  • Lack of super-efficient processors which are used by other rivals is the disadvantage of the Apple Company.
  • The organization provides unchangeable batteries which creates problems for the end users when batteries are expired. As a solution, they should provide changeable battery system.
  • In the customer’s care prospect, the company is doing its job very well. Also replacement of products if quality is not meeting user’s satisfaction.
  • Step by step analysis is required to maintain quality needs which should not be ignored and customers are always helpful to give feedback for the next product.
  • Apple’s main production partner is Foxconn. The senior executive at Apple had told Foxconn to strictly follow quality assurances to ensure that problem was not found in other iPhones.
  • iPhone 5 devices are being made in the Foxconn factory in Zhengzhou, where the strict measures for quality control were followed that result in a strike by workers. Foxconn employees work on a National public holiday.
  • Quality control is an important aspect for Apple Company. The poor quality assurance will result in dramatic effects upon company’s reputation
  • Apple is famous for designing mobile phones, computer software and media players.
  • Features of iPad are that it had touch screen interface, ran on iOS, did word processing, view images, music player, could read newspapers and magazines. Apple’s iPad is the media hyped tablet. Mobile safari was used to surf the web. The App store is used to download various paid and free apps (Goodman, 1994). It had the facility of accessing the internet through 3G or Wi-Fi
  • In-depth analysis was conducted to fulfil the study objectives in order to understand the reasons behind the low competitiveness level of the UK companies against international Mobile companies operating in UK.
  • The QM concepts aimed to gain understanding of QM implementation among end-users, project managers and the project supervision team
  • Analysis of the QM data proved that efforts in space of time measurement, cost effectiveness and efficiency at implementing quality standards can further determine the quality failure in the UK Mobile companies.
  • The research helps to investigate the implementation of QM, its benefits, the impact on profitability, market share, and quality services from Customers, empowering-users, and business stakeholder’s perspectives in the UK
  • Apple brings revolution in the digital music market by introducing iPods all around the world.
  • Apple products seem to be struggling as they are the market leaders of innovation in new technology. Change in today’s mobile technology helps in providing a huge competition now days.
  • Products manufactured by Apple have quickly earned a brand loyalty and brought iPhone revolution in the market.
  • Quality Management is a management technique which deals with the change in the definition and treatment of quality in the product development
  • Apple products are sold all over the world through direct or online sales. Steve jobs didn’t follow the traditional approach in designing products, but follows the temperamental approach.
  • Apple Company has managers who handle different areas of product development.
  • Apple‘s team members follow the leadership approach. This leadership quality helps in getting result motivated employees.

References

  • Perry, M., Le Heron, R., Hayward, D. J., & Cooper, I. 1997. Growing discipline through Quality management in a New Zealand horticulture region.Journal of Rural studies, 13(3), 289-304.
  • Hinton, M., Francis, G., & Holloway, J. 2000. Best practice benchmarking in the UK.Benchmarking: An International Journal, 7(1), 52-61.
  • Smith, S. 1988. Ten compelling reasons for QM.The QM Magazine, 1(1).
  • Finn, M., & Porter, L. J. 1994. QM self-assessment in the UK. The QM Magazine, 6(4), 56-61.
  • Youssef, M. A., & Zairi, M. 1995. Benchmarking critical factors for QM: part II–empirical results from different regions in the world.Benchmarking for Quality Management & Technology, 2(2), 3-19.Order Now

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Unit 32 : Quality Management in Business

Unit Description

This Business quality management assignment is given in East End College of Business and Computing for the course of Computing and System development. In this role of quality computing systems for Apple’s success has been described.

Task 1: Different approaches to quality management

Examine the concepts of quality in your chosen organization

Description of the Organization

Unit 32 : Quality Management in BusinessSteven jobs established multinational software company (APPLE) in 1976 in California. Apple is famous for designing mobile phones, computer software and media players. Apple products are sold all over the world through direct or online sales. Steve jobs didn’t follow the traditional approach in designing products, but follows the temperamental approach. Apple Company has managers who handle different areas of product development. Apple‘s team members follow the leadership approach. This leadership quality helps in getting result motivated employees. Apple’s product development standards are set by Steve Job and need to be fulfilled (Perry, 1997).

Definition of QM

Quality Management is a management technique which deals with the change in the definition and treatment of quality in the product development. It is used to keep check on the things that came in the today’s market. It helps in ensuring better customer service in every stage of product development

Customer-supplier interfaces are the core of QM both externally and internally, and the number of processes is present at each interface. Quality management is created by commitment to quality, the good quality message communication, and the determination of the need to change the culture of the organization. Foundations of QM support the management functions of the people, processes and systems in the organization.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • It basically helps managers introspect about the needs and motivation drivers of the employees.
  • This is in pyramid shape depicting various levels and uses of psychological and physical needs.
  • Physiological needs, Safety and Security needs,Social needs, Self-esteem needs, and Self-actualization needs

Usage of Quality management by Apple

Quality is defined as a measure up to which a product can fulfil its expectations. Now days -durability, maintainability and usability of a product are the main expectations of the customer.

Four main processes needed for Quality management are

  • Plan
  • Do
  • Check
  • Process is described using P-N-D-A cycle. Planning and preparation is included in the Plan process. Action and executing the plan is included in the Do process. Analysis, inspection and monitoring are used to measure the system check process. With assessment, valuation and analysis, action is required to solve the problem (Youssef, 1995).

Adaption of the QM process in the software industry to ensure the software quality assurance (SQA) process (Finn, 1994). The software quality assurance process is utilized to achieve quality in the software engineering process. The software quality assurance process involves following activities:

  • performing product analysis,
  • designing,
  • coding techniques
  • tools used to perform the system development at each stage
  • testing the systems to monitor documents and make necessary changes to them;
  • employ various software engineering development standards
  • Tool to review the product.
  • SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE also includes audit the quality of software to ensure that the standards are met.
  • Software engineering production mechanism is broken to analyse the performance.
  • Confidence of the customer in their products is the criteria that need to be met to promote the company’s development

The keys of successful QM ensure products of high quality. This helps in the motivation of the company’s personal productivity and performance.

Task 2: Benefits of quality management

(a) Identify and evaluate the application of quality systems and scheme for organization of your choice

Quality systems for Apple Organization

Products manufactured by Apple have quickly earned a brand loyalty and brought iPhone revolution in the market. 85% of customers who own an iPhone will purchase another iPhone as per the report. Sales of the phones during the 1st quarter of 2013 were 63% to current phone users and 37% were sold to those customers who were using other brands (Linzmayer, 2004).

Apple products continue to improve with each version. The competitors Apple products seem to be struggling as they are the market leaders of innovation in new technology. Change in today’s mobile technology helps in providing a huge competition now days. If we see the last 5 years growth of Apple, the telecommunications industry profits and revenue has been grabbed by Apple Company. By 2012, an iPhone sale has exceeded 19 million units. Apple iPhone introduces a multi-touch interface in the market. Apple’s iOS operating system was highly user friendly. Apple has introduced various new versions of the iPhone till now that were coupled with a new and improved iOS.

Overview of apple products based on the QM

The main products of Apple are as below: –

  • Apple’s iPhone – The first iPhone was introduced at the Macworld conference in 2007 by CEO Steve Jobs. The phone was a conglomeration of a Smartphone combined with internet access. It ran on a simpler version of the Mac OS X. various apps used by phone are Google Maps and weather. There were Safari browser capabilities. Various features of iPhone are touch-screen, internet, mail, music player, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. When the iPhone 5s was released in 2014, total 3 million iPhone units were sold.
  • Apple Software – OS X operating system is used by various products of Apple.
  • Apple’s iPod– apple launched its first digital player in the year 2001. It has the portability feature. It is the leader in the music players market. By the end of SEPTEMBER 2013, 220 million iPods were sold out. Various products were developed to fulfil the requirements of users.
  • Apple’s iPad – The first iPad was launched by Apple in the beginning of 2010. Features of iPad are that it had touch screen interface, ran on iOS, did word processing, view images, music player, could read newspapers and magazines. Apple’s iPad is the media hyped tablet. Mobile safari was used to surf the web. The App store is used to download various paid and free apps (Goodman, 1994). It had the facility of accessing the internet through 3G or Wi-Fi. Fourth generation iPad was launched in 2012.By the end of 2012; there were 25 billion apps that were downloaded from App Store.

QM for the Product improvement

  • Product quality
  • Reduction of product cost
  • Product robustness
  • Understand ability and reliability of product
  • Visibility and supportability of the product.

Product improvement cycle includes (Hinton, 2000)

Quality parameters followed by the company

Unit 32 : Quality Management in BusinessThe technique used by the management team to build a system having good quality products and processes is known as Quality management (QM). The main technique used by the QM is that all employees of the company are responsible for the phases of production and quality of the end product. The management units of Apple should all be aware of this technique to produce products of good quality.

Various practices found in the Apple Company according to McKone are:

  • product design for multipurpose usage
  • process management
  • suppliers Quality management
  • interaction with the customer
  • Feedback from customer
  • Information sharing
  • Leadership
  • Planning
  • Training in Cross-discipline
  • Employee interaction

The needs of the end user dictate the Philosophy of quality management. To obtain the highest quality product Continuous focus on improvement of processes is needed. The good Quality product helps in the development of company (Panteghini, 2004). To improve the quality of the product, the entire system is needed to be improved. Number of aspects that ensure the success of QM is as follows:

1) Quality improvement– It is the combined effort of both the management and the personnel in the company that should work together in teams on quality. When quality of the product is poor Employee’s empowerment needs action

2) Customer expectations – Expectations of the customer for the quality are met to fulfil the technical requirements. Good quality products are demanded by the customers. Improvements in the management and the process should be aimed at satisfying their needs.
3) Layout of the Process – Process layout should be such so as to improve efficiency and movement of resources by arranging machinery and equipments according to the need and requirements of an effective Design plan. According to the Toyota Production System and Lean Manufacturing ideologies, the production line should be designed in such a way so as to eliminate waste during transportation of the material and managing inventory. The Process layout of the Apple Inc is such that the machinery on the shop floor is arranged according to the process they are a part of. For example, if on a shop floor you are doing spray painting, then in a process type of layout all the machinery that is needed to complete the job of spray painting will be placed in the vicinity (Linzmayer, 2004). The product to be spray painted will move on a conveyor belt and all the operations will be performed on that in the sequence of the machine location.

(b) Use the input-output model to examine the operating system of your organization

Unit 32 : Quality Management in Business

  • Management of various activities which are linked to each other
  • Usage of resources is managed for transforming inputs to output.
  • Apple produces various products such as iPhone, iPad, and all the other I-products that will help in leading the world’s media business
  • One of the top wealthiest company in this space as of now
  • Growth of Apple, Inc. is faster than any other company.
  • Revenue rate is exceptional in the last 4-5 years. Sometimes the revenue increases many-folds year on year
  • Apple’s previous CEO – Steve Jobs, had brought a revolution in the mobile software and hardware business.
  • Apple just keeps hitting new records in its revenue, that revenue almost doubled since the last three years (Goodman, 1994).Order Now

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An evaluation of E-Recruitment at Marks and Spencer

An evaluation of E-Recruitment at Marks and SpencerIntroduction:

As opined by Arvey and Campion (2010, p290), “In order to increase the efficiency and retention of the employees, it is essential to implement an appropriate Recruitment and Selection process”. Recruitment is the procedure that the organization applies to identify the human resource requirements of the organisation and attract suitable candidates. Selection refers to the process that is involved in choosing a predefined number of candidates from a number of applicants to fill the available posts in the organization (Barber, 2009).

Background on the topic:

Employees are considered to be the face of the organisation. According to Compton and Nankervis (2011), effective recruitment and selection procedure gives the organization a unique identity in terms of competent human resource and performance. Strategic human resource management involved hiring potential individuals whose skills and competencies match with the organisational goals and objectives. The selection of the right person for the right job, at the right time and place is essential to drive organisational performance. Hiring the wrong candidates can lead to increased costs in terms of training, low employee productivity and high labour turnover. The study deals with investigating the recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer, U.K..

Marks & Spencer recruit internally by advertising on the notice board either in paper format or through employee account online like, organizational intranet, in his journals, references or recommendations and word of mouth. The external recruitment procedure is followed by contacting  hiring agencies for graduates, employment agencies for contemporary workers and accepting online application  in the company’s own web site.

 Rationale of the study:

Organisations in the current competitive business scenario face a scarcity of talented employees whose competencies match with the organisational goals. Poor hiring and selection policies lead to low employee productivity, loss of employee morale, increasing costs and higher turnover intention (Giovanni et al. 2008). Unsuitable employees unnecessarily increase training costs, demotivate Co workers, and thereby build weak organisational culture. Davidson (2010) has stated that an effective recruitment and selection process has an objective to structure a strong manpower and efficient human resource to enhance the productivity of the firm. The traditional process like newspaper adverts are now less effective as online networking is a great resource to reach to each person for this process. A wrong way of selection process can cause the degradation of human resource that can hamper the productivity of the firm (Dessler and Williams, 2009).

The relevance of this study can be justified as it seeks  to uncover the loopholes (if exists) in the current recruitment and selection process of Marks & Spencer. Identifying such loopholes will prevent the company from hiring unsuitable candidates, thereby reducing costs and developing effective talent management.

Aims and Objectives:

The following aims and objectives can help the researcher to go through a proper way to meet the objectives.

Aims

The aim of this research is to investigate the recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer to meet its workforce requirements. The researcher also aims to critically analyse the pros and cons of its current hiring process and recommend better strategies if loopholes exist.

Objectives

The objectives of the research can be explained as follows:

  1. To understand the importance of recruitment and selection process for organizational development
  2. To critically evaluate the effectiveness of current recruitment and selection strategies followed by Marks & Spencer.
  3. To identify recruitment gaps and recommend better strategies for future talent management
Research Questions:

Q1) what is the need and importance of having an effective recruitment and selection policy for modern organizations?

Q2) Is the current recruitment and selection procedure followed by Marks & Spencer appropriate enough to meet organisational goals?

Q3) Does the company follow a cost effective approach to talent management, such as E-recruitment from social media ?

Q4) What are the problems that the company’s H.R. dept face in terms of hiring competent employees ? What can be the possible solution to such recruitment issues ?

 Literature Review:

The literature review is an effective assessment of the applied theoretical evidences and techniques to carry out the present research in a logical fashion (Kleiman, 2007). The researcher will try to understand the different conceptual and theoretical framework on the basis of recruitment and selection procedures. This study will critically discuss all the literature about the topic to have a clear visibility about the recruitment and selection procedure and is impacting on the organizational performance. Negative and positive approaches will be declared to make a better understanding.

 Recruitment and Selection:

According to Kunerth and Mosley (2011), identifying the need for recruitment, both in terms of quality and quantity, is the core function of human resource department. Attracting the right candidates through proper sources as and when vacancies arise is the rationale being recruited. Selection refers to choosing potential candidates whose performance help to achieve organisational goals (Nankervis, 2010). The entire process involves advertisements for relevant posts, receiving applications, sorting and shortlisting applications, interviewing and testing candidates to fulfil the workforce requirements. Parry and Wilson (2009) define selection as ‘the process by which managers use specific instruments to choose suitable candidate from a pool of applicants most likely to succeed in the job(s), organizational goals and legal requirements’.

The human resource department has to comply with relevant laws relating to social discrimination, equal opportunity etc. in order to conduct ethical recruitment and selection. According to Sharma (2009), in this globalised and increasingly sophisticated market, recruitment and selection process has become an essential tool for every organization to achieve the goal with the continuation of innovation and growth in the future.Order Now

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking Assignment

Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking AssignmentSocial networking is considered to be the hottest online trend in the past decade. It has come out to be an integral part in career building-if used correctly. We have also witnessed the exploded use of social media and networking in career development through development of smart phones and other mobile technologies that have made social media a daily routine for many people. It has also an added advantage where it increases the potential of identifying and securing of employment. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of social networking in career development.

Advantages of Social Networking

Social networking offers many benefits in carrier development. For instance, it has now become easy to keep contact with friends and colleagues (Elleithy, 2010). Looking the example of a professional networking site such as LinkedIn, itgives users access to business people who are known to their contacts. Therefore, they are able to connect with other business professions by looking at their credentials and business interest. Hence, the connectivity to other business professions by this site boosts your career development, since one is able to link with the professions who serve as mentors.

Social networking is also a vital tool for entrepreneurs. For instance, freelance find contacts via professional groups on LinkedIn and twitter, through these professions are able to market their product and services (Elleithy, 2010). Looking at social media such as face book they offer a wide range of services that is marketing and ability to precisely advertise their services is normally aimed at helping individuals build their careers.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking AssignmentWe can also state that LinkedIn serves as a business toll for over 200 million people. Therefore, most individuals design their online resume, detailing their education, career history and creative portfolio. Hence, such a platform tends to encourage users to connect with individuals working in their line of career. Hence, they are able to effectively endorse and build their careers through this platform of social networking.

Social networking is also advantageous for career development since it carries the potential of job search, where by one is able to know leads that wouldn’t be known of otherwise.  Therefore, we can state that it has triggered development of careers since it is geared for professional networking, and for obvious reasons it tends to have the best job leads. However, following of a company’s pages and accounts on social media platforms, one may come across job posting that serves as a perfect fit. Hence, (Elleithy, 2010) encourages people to join group related to their career on social networks, so as to develop themselves.

Disadvantages of Social Networking

The main disadvantage experienced with social networking is that most individuals fail to understand the meaning of networking effectively. Hence, the few benefits they achieve from their networking activities aren’t worth the time invested (In Isaias&InKommers, 2016). Therefore, it tends to lower the potential they have one developing their careers. Thus, the best method to be used so as to avoid being disappointed is by strategically using social sites and stick to it.For instance, if you use your twitter handle for career development, then resist the temptation of wasting time tweeting unrelated topics. Stay focused on the achievement you want and don’t be distracted.

The golden rule pertained to social networking is avoid putting anything that lowers the reputation on your career(In Isaias&InKommers, 2016). For instance, pictures of you acting unprofessionally could harm you on the chances of getting a job, or make poor impression on a new client. Hence, it degrades the levels of your career development. Therefore, to avoid such a situation it is always advisable to create another account using a nickname, so as to keep the professional account clean.

References

In Issa, T., In Isaias, P., & In Kommers, P. A. M. (2016).Social networking and education:             Global perspectives.

Elleithy, K., International Conference on Telecommunications and Networking, International   Conference on Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment and E-     Learning, & International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Technology and          Automation.(2010). Technological developments in networking, education and             automation. Dordrecht: Springer. Order Now